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What is the Federal Funds Rate?

What is the Federal Funds Rate?

The Federal Reserve (the "Fed"), the country's central bank, determines a significant interest rate known as the Federal Funds Rate (FFR). It is the interest rate at which depository institutions, like banks and credit unions, lend each other their surplus reserves on an overnight basis without any type of security. 

The FFR is one of the most carefully followed interest rates in the world since it serves as a crucial barometer for the health of the American economy and is frequently used as a comparison point for other interest rates, including those on mortgages, credit cards, and auto loans. 

The Fed does not directly set the FFR, but it can influence it through its open market operations, which involve the buying and selling of government securities in the open market. When the Fed buys securities, it injects money into the banking system, which can lead to a decrease in the FFR. Conversely, when the Fed sells securities, it withdraws money from the banking system, which can lead to an increase in the FFR. 

The Importance of the Federal Funds Rate

The FFR is an important tool that the Fed uses to manage the U.S. economy. By setting the FFR, the Fed can influence the cost and availability of credit in the economy, which in turn affects economic activity and inflation. 

When the Fed lowers the FFR, it makes it cheaper for banks to borrow money, which in turn can lead to lower interest rates for consumers and businesses. Lower interest rates can stimulate borrowing and investment, which can boost economic growth. 

Conversely, when the Fed raises the FFR, it makes it more expensive for banks to borrow money, which can lead to higher interest rates for consumers and businesses. Higher interest rates can discourage borrowing and investment, which can slow down economic growth and curb inflation. 

The Fed's primary mandate is to promote maximum employment and stable prices. To achieve these goals, it aims to keep inflation at a moderate level (around 2% per year) and to keep the economy operating at full employment. The FFR is one of the tools that the Fed uses to achieve these goals. 

Historical Trends in the Federal Funds Rate

The FFR has varied widely over the years, reflecting changes in the economy and shifts in Fed policy. In the early 1980s, for example, the Fed raised the FFR to very high levels (above 20% at one point) to combat high inflation. This had the effect of causing a severe recession, but it also helped to bring inflation under control. 

In recent years, the FFR has been much lower, reflecting a sluggish economy and low inflation. In December 2015, for example, the Fed raised the FFR for the first time in nearly a decade, but it has remained relatively low since then, hovering between 0% and 0.25%. 

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Fed lowered the FFR to near-zero levels in March 2020 to support the economy and promote lending. It has since kept the FFR at these low levels to help support the economic recovery. 


The Federal Funds Rate is a crucial interest rate that is closely watched by economists, investors, and policymakers around the world. It is an important tool that the Fed uses to manage the U.S. economy and to achieve its primary mandate of promoting maximum employment and stable prices. 

The FFR can have a significant impact on economic activity and inflation, and changes in the FFR can affect a wide range of interest rates that are important to consumers and businesses. Understanding the FFR and its role in the economy is essential for anyone who wants to stay informed about economic trends

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