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What is a call option?

What is a call option?

A call option is a type of contract that allows the holder of the contract to purchase an underlying stock at a specific price, even if the market price goes higher. A call option contract gives the owner of the contract the right to purchase a particular asset, which is typically a stock, at a strike price designated in the contract during a certain period of time. For example, if the stock of company ABC is trading at $100/share, you might purchase the right to buy it at $90/share for a $12/share premium. Continue reading...

What are SPDRs?

What are SPDRs?

SPDRs (Spiders) are index ETF shares that track the S&P 500, or could refer to other similar ETFs tracking other indices. The SPDR is the longest standing ETF (exchange traded fund), and has existed since 1993. Unlike index mutual funds that track the S&P, ETFs can trade intraday, can be sold short, and bought on margin. There are other SPDR ETFs that are spin-offs, and using “SPDRs” in the plural might refer to these as well. SPDRs are managed by State Street Global Advisors, and the S&P 500 SPDR is listed on the NYSE under the ticker symbol SPY. Continue reading...

What Does Mark to Market (MTM) Mean?

Mark to Market (MTM) is an accounting method meant to price an asset by its most recent market price. An example would be mutual funds, whose “NAV” price is a mark to market price of how much the mutual fund closed for at the end of a trading session. The mark to market accounting method has some pros and cons. On the pro side, if an asset is very liquid, then MTM will provide an accurate reflection of its current value. Continue reading...

How to use the  Accumulation/Distribution in trading

How to use the Accumulation/Distribution in trading

The Accumulation/Distribution Indicator (originally called the Cumulative Money Flow Line) tracks cash flow into or out of a security and correlates the cash flow changes to changes in the security price. By following the trading volume into or out of a security, it establishes the degree of correlation between this trading volume and the price of the security. Accumulation/distribution is designed to reveal divergences in price trends (specifically between stock price and trading volume). These divergences indicate the degree to which a security may be overbought or oversold at a given time. Continue reading...

What does “Buy to Close” Mean?

When an investor takes a short position on an option contract by selling (“writing”) a call or put option, he or she is opening a position, which creates more open interest in an underlying security which will be handled by the brokerage house, and this is called “selling to open.” If the price changes in the underlying security in an unfavorable way, the investor will seek to get out of the short position he holds on the options contract before the option’s expiration date. To do so, the investor must buy back the option (or, really, cancel out the position by buying the same kind of contract that he or she previously sold short). Continue reading...

What is the adaptive market hypothesis?

What is the adaptive market hypothesis?

The Adaptive Market Hypothesis uses theories of behavioral economics to update the aging Efficient Market Hypothesis. There have been many debates surrounding the Efficient Market Hypothesis and its validity, and a lot of research over the last 15 years or so has been done which suggests that behavioral finance holds many of the keys to an accurate “universal theory” of the markets. A marriage between the two schools of thought has given birth to the Adaptive Market Hypothesis, coined in 2004 by Andrew Lo of MIT. Behavioral and evolutionary principals come into play when theorizing about the large-scale behavior and adaptation of humans in a system. Continue reading...

What is IRS Publication 530, Tax Information for Homeowners?

IRS Link to Publication — Found Here There are many tax questions when it comes to home ownership, mortgages, equity, federal loan programs, selling a home, and so forth. Publication 530 seeks to address all relevant tax information for this large and important financial asset, which is often the largest purchase they will ever make. Homeowners incur expenses for home equity, mortgage interest, private mortgage insurance, improvements and maintenance, and taxes. Much of this can be deducted. Continue reading...

What is the Broadening Top (Bullish) Pattern?

The Broadening Top pattern forms when the price of a pair progressively makes higher highs (1, 3) and lower lows (2, 4) following two widening trend lines. The price is expected to move up or down past the pattern depending on which line is broken first. What distinguishes a Broadening Top from a Broadening Bottom is that the price of the pair is rising prior to entering the pattern formation. This type of formation happens when volatility is high or increasing, and when a pair’s price is moving with high volatility but little or no direction. It potentially indicates growing investor nervousness and indecisiveness. Continue reading...

How to use the Arms Index (TRIN) in trading

How to use the Arms Index (TRIN) in trading

Richard Arms invented the analysis tool that bears his name in 1967. The Arms Index, a technical analysis indicator, is also called the TRIN (short for “Trading Index”) because it seeks to indicate overbought or oversold conditions by serving as an index of trading activity relative to price. The Arms index is calculated using readily available data from major indexes such as the S&P 500 or NASDAQ. The ratio of the number of advancing stocks (stocks whose prices are increasing) to the number of declining stocks (stocks whose prices are decreasing) is computed to give us the A/D Ratio, a market breadth indicator that is one way of viewing the daily breadth of a security. The Advance/Decline Ratio uses the same numbers as the Advance/Decline Line but presents them as a ratio instead. The AD Ratio is sometimes more useful than an AD Line, including in instances where comparing AD for different indexes which have different metrics; the ratio is the standardization with which comparisons can be made. Continue reading...

What is the Symmetrical Triangle Bottom (Bullish) Pattern?

What is the Symmetrical Triangle Bottom (Bullish) Pattern?

The Symmetrical Triangle Bottom pattern forms when the price of a security fails to retest a high or a low and ultimately forms two narrowing trend lines. As the support and resistance levels consolidate, it forms a triangle (1­5). Symmetrical Triangles are characterized by the upper line sloping downward and lower line sloping upward. The price movement inside the triangle should fill the shape with some uniformity, without leaving large blank areas. Continue reading...