What is a put option?

What is a put option?

Put options are financial instruments that give the owner the right, but not the obligation, to sell an underlying asset, usually a stock, at a specified price, called the strike price, within a specified period of time. They are commonly used by investors to hedge against potential losses or to speculate on the price movement of a stock.

One of the advantages of put options is that they provide protection against a decline in the value of a stock. If the price of the underlying stock falls below the strike price, the owner of the put option can sell the stock at the higher strike price, effectively limiting their losses. This can be particularly useful for investors who hold large positions in a stock and want to protect themselves against a market downturn.

Put options are also a popular tool for speculators who want to profit from a decline in the price of a stock. By buying put options at a low price, they can sell the stock at a higher price and make a profit. However, this strategy carries a higher risk than hedging, as the investor may lose money if the stock price remains stable or rises instead of falling.

It is important to note that buying a put option involves paying a premium, which is the price of the option contract. This premium is determined by several factors, including the strike price, the time remaining until expiration, and the volatility of the underlying stock. In general, the higher the volatility of the stock, the higher the premium for the put option.

Put options are traded on exchanges, such as the Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE), where they are standardized contracts with fixed terms and conditions. Each contract typically represents 100 shares of the underlying stock, although this can vary depending on the exchange and the underlying asset.

When buying a put option, investors have a choice of different strike prices and expiration dates. The strike price is the price at which the underlying stock can be sold, and the expiration date is the date on which the option contract expires. The closer the expiration date, the lower the premium for the put option, as there is less time for the stock price to fall below the strike price.

In addition to buying put options, investors can also sell put options, which involves writing a contract that obligates them to buy the underlying stock at the strike price if the option is exercised. Selling put options can be a profitable strategy for investors who are bullish on a stock and believe that it is unlikely to fall below the strike price.

However, selling put options carries a higher risk than buying them, as the seller is obligated to buy the stock if the option is exercised, even if the stock price falls significantly. As a result, investors who sell put options should be prepared to buy the underlying stock if necessary and should have sufficient funds or margin available to do so.

In conclusion, put options are a powerful tool for investors who want to protect themselves against potential losses or profit from a decline in the price of a stock. However, they carry a higher risk than simply buying and holding the stock, and investors should carefully consider their objectives and risk tolerance before using them. As with any financial instrument, it is important to do your research and seek professional advice before making any investment decisions.


On the other hand, let’s say you own 100 shares of ABC, and each share is worth $100. You actually bought these 100 shares a few years ago at $50/share, and you want to protect your profits. A put option can give you that protection if you buy a contract with a strike price below the current market price of the stock, but higher than the price you paid for it.