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What are Mutual Funds?

Mutual funds have become increasingly popular among investors looking to access professionally managed portfolios and diversify their investments. In this article, we will delve into the world of mutual funds, exploring their definition, types, and how they are priced. By understanding these key aspects, investors can make informed decisions about incorporating mutual funds into their investment strategy.

At its core, a mutual fund is an investment vehicle that pools together funds from multiple investors to create a diversified portfolio of stocks, bonds, or other securities. These funds are managed by professional money managers or investment advisers who strive to generate capital gains or income for the fund's investors.

One of the significant advantages of mutual funds is that they provide small or individual investors access to professionally managed portfolios, which would otherwise be challenging to achieve independently. Each shareholder participates proportionally in the gains or losses of the fund, making it an attractive option for those seeking broad market exposure.

Types of Mutual Funds

Mutual funds come in various categories, representing the types of securities they invest in, their investment objectives, and the returns they seek. The four main categories are stock funds, bond funds, index funds, and balanced funds.

  1. Stock Funds: These funds primarily invest in equity or stocks, offering investors exposure to different company sizes and investment approaches. They can focus on small-cap, mid-cap, or large-cap companies and may adopt strategies such as aggressive growth, value investing, or a blend of both.

  2. Bond Funds: Bond funds focus on fixed-income investments, such as government bonds and corporate bonds. These funds generate interest income, which is passed on to the shareholders. Bond funds can vary based on the types of bonds they invest in, such as government securities or high-yield junk bonds.

  3. Index Funds: Index funds aim to replicate the performance of a specific market index, such as the S&P 500 or the Dow Jones Industrial Average. They provide cost-effective investment options as they require less research and have lower expenses compared to actively managed funds.

  4. Balanced Funds: Balanced funds, also known as asset allocation funds, invest in a mix of asset classes, including stocks, bonds, money market instruments, and alternative investments. Their objective is to reduce risk by diversifying across different asset classes, offering investors exposure to various market segments.

How Are Mutual Funds Priced?

Understanding how mutual funds are priced is crucial for investors. The price of a mutual fund share is referred to as the net asset value (NAV) per share. The NAV is calculated by dividing the total value of the securities in the fund's portfolio by the total number of shares outstanding.

Mutual fund shares can be purchased or redeemed at the fund's current NAV, which is typically settled at the end of each trading day. The NAVPS is updated accordingly. Unlike stocks, mutual fund shares do not provide voting rights. Instead, they represent investments in a diversified portfolio of securities managed by the fund.

Mutual Fund Returns

Investors typically earn returns from mutual funds through three avenues: income from dividends and interest, capital gains from the sale of securities, and changes in the fund's share price. Total return measures the change in value, including interest, dividends, and capital gains generated by the fund over a specific period. Investors can assess total returns for various timeframes, such as one, five, or ten years.


Mutual funds are managed portfolios of stocks and bonds, where the portfolio manager uses pooled investor funds to manage the portfolio.

In the U.S., the first mutual fund was created in 1924 when three investors in Boston pooled their money and formed the Massachusetts Investors’ Trust. The essence behind Mutual Funds today is the same – a pool of money is collected from a number of investors and then professionally managed.

The investors are distributed the gains or losses of a portfolio purchased with their capital. The fund might consist of individual stocks, bonds, and even other mutual funds. A mutual fund is technically a company whose only assets are the securities it holds, and investors who purchase shares of the mutual fund will participate in the gains and losses of the entire portfolio held by the mutual fund.

Gains and losses in a mutual fund portfolio must be passed on to the individual investors every year, since the mutual fund is a pass-through entity. Mutual Funds are often attractive because they provide more diversification than most investors are able to get on their own.

Most investors simply cannot purchase shares of 1,000 different stocks, especially if it is meant to gain exposure to a certain sector or asset class that takes expertise to navigate. Funds can accomplish this through active management or index investing that focuses on certain sectors, regions, and so on.

What Are the Basics of Mutual Funds?
What’s better: ETFs or Mutual Funds?
How Fast Should My Portfolio Grow?
How Many Investment Choices Should I Have in My Portfolio?

 Disclaimers and Limitations

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