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What are the Basics of Stocks?

Investing in stocks can be an exciting and potentially lucrative endeavor. However, to make informed investment decisions, it is crucial to have a solid understanding of the basics of stocks. In this article, we will explore the fundamental concepts behind stocks and their role as financial instruments, highlighting the importance of risk assessment and the use of fundamental and technical analysis in the stock market.

  1. Stocks: An Introduction: Stocks, also known as shares or equities, represent ownership in a company. When a company decides to raise capital, it can issue stocks to the public. Investors who purchase these stocks become shareholders, owning a portion of the company. This ownership entitles them to participate in the company's profits and exercise certain rights, such as voting on corporate decisions.

  2. Risk and Return: One fundamental principle of investing is the relationship between risk and return. Investing in stocks inherently involves risk, as the value of a stock can fluctuate based on market conditions and the company's performance. Investors who are willing to assume greater risk have the potential for higher returns, but they also face the possibility of greater losses. It is crucial for investors to evaluate their risk tolerance and consider their investment goals before entering the stock market.

  3. Securitization and Equity: Stocks are securitized financial instruments, meaning they are brought into existence as tradable assets. When investors purchase stocks, they gain equity in the company. Equity represents ownership and is proportional to the number of shares owned. Shareholders have the opportunity to benefit from the company's growth and success through capital appreciation and dividends.

  4. The Secondary Market: Stocks are traded on the secondary market, where buyers and sellers come together to transact. This market provides liquidity, allowing investors to buy or sell stocks at prevailing market prices. The secondary market is influenced by various factors, including supply and demand dynamics, economic conditions, and investor sentiment. Understanding the dynamics of the secondary market is essential for investors to make informed decisions regarding buying, selling, or holding stocks.

  5. Fundamental Analysis: Fundamental analysis is a method used to evaluate stocks and companies based on their intrinsic value and financial performance. By examining factors such as revenue, earnings, growth prospects, competitive advantages, and industry trends, investors can assess the underlying value of a stock. Fundamental analysis provides insights into the financial health and long-term prospects of a company, helping investors make informed investment decisions.

  6. Technical Analysis: Technical analysis involves studying historical price and volume patterns to predict future stock price movements. It focuses on identifying trends, support and resistance levels, and other patterns in stock charts. Technical analysts believe that historical price patterns and market trends can provide valuable insights into future stock price behavior. While fundamental analysis looks at the "what" of a stock, technical analysis focuses on the "when" and "how" of trading decisions.


This article and the ones that follow should give you a solid foundation in the knowledge of stocks and their use as financial instruments.

We have established the basic structure of a common stock share: a company issues stock to raise capital, the owner of the stock is entitled to participate in the profits of the company, and stocks are traded in the Secondary Market between buyers and sellers who assume the risk and receive any proceeds that arise from price changes.

The concept of risk—where taking greater risk entitles the bearer of the risk to greater potential returns (and losses)—is a fundamental tenet of investing. The shares and other instruments are “securitized” – that is, brought into being as financial instruments, and when investors buy them they gain equity but also assume risk.

If the company grows and succeeds and investors bid up its price, shareholders win. But the opposite can also be true.

This is where fundamental and technical analysis of stocks and companies is critical – it can help investors decide which risks are worth taking.

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The fundamental premise of technical analysis lies in identifying recurring price patterns and trends, which can then be used to forecast the course of upcoming market trends. Our journey commenced with the development of AI-based Engines, such as the Pattern Search EngineReal-Time Patterns, and the Trend Prediction Engine, which empower us to conduct a comprehensive analysis of market trends. We have delved into nearly all established methodologies, including price patterns, trend indicators, oscillators, and many more, by leveraging neural networks and deep historical backtests. As a consequence, we've been able to accumulate a suite of trading algorithms that collaboratively allow our AI Robots to effectively pinpoint pivotal moments of shifts in market trends.

What is the difference between Common Stock and Preferred Stock?
What is the Difference Between a Growth and Value Stock?

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