# Articles on Stock markets

## News, Research and Analysis

Popular articles

#### When was the Latest Housing Bubble?

The latest housing bubble burst in 2005, a few years prior to the stock market meltdown. Housing prices peaked in 2005, and over-leveraged homeowners started to feel the pinch of falling property values leading into the 2008 financial crisis. In the 2005 - 2012 period, housing prices fell some 30-80% in various parts of the U.S. Problems emerged when the loans outstanding on homes exceeded the home's value, and when job losses eventually resulted in mass defaults. Continue reading...

#### What are Industry-Specific Mutual Funds?

Industry-specific funds attempt to capture the movements of a single industry. Industry-specific mutual funds will usually limit themselves to investing in particular industries. There are thousands of such funds. Their focus can be very broad (such as technology - here) or very narrow (such as solar energy - here). Investors who would like to gain exposure to specific industries to round out their portfolios can do so with an industry-specific fund which offers diversification among many different holdings in an industry, as opposed to one or two stocks in an industry. Continue reading...

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#### What does delta mean?

Delta is a ratio which measures the degree of correlation between changes in price for the underlying security and changes in the price of the option. Put another way, Delta indicates the amount of price change in a derivative by comparing changes between asset and derivative prices. Delta is a multiple that applies to options positions; it, along with Gamma, Theta, and Vega, helps options investors calculate risk and potential return for an investment. Delta can quickly tell an options investor how much the price of their option will change per share relative to the price change in the underlying security. Delta is represented by a number between 1 and -1, with a negative Delta value sometimes written in accounting notation, like: (1). Continue reading...

Keywords: Beta,

#### What is fourier analysis?

Fourier Analysis is a mathematical method of identifying and describing harmonic patterns in complex oscillating environments, and is used in options pricing among other things. Fourier Analysis is used to compute the probability that results will be within a certain range. Fourier analysis also has many other applications in physics, engineering, and music, for instance, because it can create a system for identifying patterns and simplifying computations for complex systems which feature oscillations and waves which have frequencies. Continue reading...

#### What is the Contribution Margin Ratio?

The contribution margin ratio presents a profit (less variable expenses) as a percentage of net sales. For an individual product, the contribution margin ratio would look at that product’s contribution margin ratio as a percentage of the profit made on that sale. The higher the contribution margin ratio, the better. A low contribution margin ratio would indicate that a company would have a difficult time creating a substantial profit from the sale of that product over time. Continue reading...

#### What is a Home Equity Line of Credit (HELOC)?

Much like a Reverse Mortgage or Second Mortgage, a HELOC gives homeowners the ability to convert their home equity into cash. A HELOC is a line of credit secured by the equity in your home. Homeowners can choose when to use the funds, and there are repayments due according to a schedule in the contract. It functions as a revolving line of credit, similar to a credit card with large limits. Some people find themselves interested in a HELOC if they have a large balloon payment due on a loan, perhaps even their home mortgage loan. They are also sometimes used as a debt consolidation tool to pay off credit cards and other outstanding debts (but, for this, fixed-rate home equity loans are more popular). Continue reading...

#### What is a Home Lien?

A lien is a legal filing through which a third party lays claim to certain assets, such as a person’s home, until an amount owed to them is paid. There are mechanic’s liens, judgment liens, and tax liens, any of which could be applied to a person’s home. A lien is a document serving as notice that a significant amount of money is owed to a third party and that certain assets of the debtor may be used to cover the obligation, becoming the property of the lien-holder if the debt is not paid in time. Continue reading...

#### Do I Have to Pay Taxes on My Bitcoins?

The IRS currently requires that bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies be reported as personal property and capital assets. The IRS has published guidance that, yes, you do have to report gains/losses/income in the form of bitcoin and other “convertible virtual currencies.” Generally, the IRS treats bitcoin as property, instructing taxpayers to follow the existing IRS guidelines for personal property taxation. You can claim them as a capital asset, allowing you to treat them as stocks, essentially, with the ability to only pay long-term capital gains taxes on them if you hold them for a while. You can get paid in bitcoin by your employer, but employers must still withhold the usual amount of taxes, and you must report your bitcoin income the same way you would your regular income. Continue reading...

#### What is Tokenization?

Tokenization is a concept that can take several forms, but essentially it means to create a tradeable item which holds value anchored in an asset which is not itself readily tradeable. If something of value is not easily traded, it is natural that a token is created which represents part or all of such value, which can then be held until redemption or circulated as currency. Historically, some things, such as hours of labor, could not easily be accounted for without a physical token. Continue reading...