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What are foreign exchange reserves?

What are foreign exchange reserves?

Central banks and sometimes other banks and large corporations, hold reserves in foreign currencies as a hedge against exchange rate risk and perhaps to satisfy the liquidity needs of positions they may have in Forex derivatives. Central banks and large institutions which engage in international trade and Forex transactions will find it prudent and sometimes necessary to hold substantial reserves in a foreign currency. Central banks frequently engage in various types of Forex transactions to balance their exposure to trends, risks, and other effects in the currency market. Continue reading...

What is foreign exchange risk?

What is foreign exchange risk?

Foreign Exchange Risk is the possibility that exchange rates will move against you when you have pending payment on transactions in another currency or other investment positions in foreign currencies or foreign assets which will be affected by Forex fluctuations. Foreign Exchange Risk can also be called Forex risk, and it is the potential loss to an investor or institution when doing business in a foreign currency if the exchange rate swings unfavorably. Companies and countries take various measures to hedge against exchange rate risk, including holding reserves of other currencies and buying derivative contracts on various currency pairs. Continue reading...

What is Federal Debt?

What is Federal Debt?

Federal debt is the money owed by the government. The primary source of this debt is Treasury Bonds (Notes), which constitute debt obligations. About 25% of the current national debt is owed internally between different government agencies, mostly to the Social Security Trust Funds. The Federal Debt is also, and perhaps more commonly, referred to as the National Debt. Currently the debt is approximately $19 Trillion. Continue reading...

What is currency depreciation?

What is currency depreciation?

The value of a currency can depreciate in relation to the value of other currencies or to another benchmark. Currencies can have their value determined by the cost of a basket of consumer goods from one period to another, but this is really just a measure of inflation. Inflation (or “deflation”) is a subset of the appreciation/depreciation metric, but changes in the exchange rates between currencies are typically seen as the most relevant measure of a currency’s value. Continue reading...

What is a currency certificate?

What is a currency certificate?

A currency certificate is also called a foreign exchange (Forex) certificate (FEC), and it validates that the bearer is entitled to a certain amount of foreign currency upon the redemption of the certificate, or that a certain amount of foreign currency was exchanged for it. This is not to be confused with a certificate of currency, which is proof that some types of insurance are currently in effect. Currency certificates have been historically used in countries with closed or controlled economies, such as the Soviet Union, Cuba, and China. Continue reading...

What is the Shanghai Composite Index?

What is the Shanghai Composite Index?

The “Shanghai” is an index measuring all shares that are traded on the Shanghai Stock Exchange (China). The Shanghai Index - also referred to as the SSE Composite Index or simply “the Shanghai” - is an index measuring price changes of all A and B shares traded on China’s Shanghai Exchange. Many foreign investors have only limited access to trading shares on China’s main exchange, which makes price discrepancies likely. Continue reading...

What is the Hang Seng Index?

What is the Hang Seng Index?

The Hang Seng Index (HSI) is comprised of the 50 biggest stocks traded on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. The Hong Kong stock market is much different than that of China, in that foreign investors are allowed access and the index is calculated on a free floating cap-weighted basis. It tracks the 50 biggest companies on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, and is a better barometer for measuring overall performance of companies from the region. Continue reading...

What is currency convertibility?

What is currency convertibility?

Currencies may work fine in a particular country or region, but it may happen that certain currencies are not convertible into other currencies or gold. Sometimes this is by choice, such as was formerly the case with closed economies like the People’s Republic of China, Soviet Russia, Cuba, and others. Most currencies are convertible into other currencies. Banks, at least the central banks of countries, tend to have reserves of most foreign currencies with their citizens do business. Continue reading...

What is a currency symbol?

What is a currency symbol?

Currency symbols are characters written or typed in a specific arrangement alongside the numerical values of a currency amount, to denote the kind of currency in which the amount of money is held. An example would be the dollar sign ($), which is placed at the beginning of the numbers which describe the amount of currency in question, despite the fact that in most languages the word “dollars” follows the numbers when spoken. Many currencies have their own symbol but not necessarily all do. Continue reading...

How Does Hong Kong's Economy Differ from Mainland China's?

Hong Kong and mainland China, two economic giants, share a relationship that's both intricate and multifaceted. From Hong Kong's unique status as a Special Administrative Region to its role as a global financial hub, its ties with mainland China are deeply rooted in history, politics, and economics. While they operate under different economic systems, their mutual interdependence is undeniable. Dive into this comprehensive analysis to understand the contrasts, collaborations, and the delicate balance of autonomy and integration that defines the dynamic between these two powerhouses in East Asia. Continue reading...

What's the Difference Yuan vs. Renminbi?

Chinese currency is a topic of significant interest in today's global economic landscape. It not only reflects the status of one of the world's largest economic powers but is also central to a contentious issue surrounding China – the perception of its mercantilist policies, particularly the alleged manipulation of its currency's value to gain an unfair advantage in international trade, especially against the U.S. dollar. In this article, we will delve into the intricacies of Chinese currency, explaining the distinctions between the Chinese Yuan (CNY) and the People's Renminbi (RMB) and shedding light on the associated issues. Continue reading...

What is a foreign institutional investor?

What is a foreign institutional investor?

Institutional investors are corporations, banks, pension funds, mutual funds, and other forms of pooled capital which act as one entity to engage in securities transactions in the best interest of the constituents or company that they represent. Foreign Institutional Investors are those whose company is based in another country. Investments made on behalf of foreign companies, foreign financial institutions, and foreign funds (such as the foreign equivalent of hedge funds, mutual funds, and pension funds) are foreign institutional investments. There are usually reporting requirements for both the foreign government for the county in which the interests are held and for the domestic government of the institutional investor. Continue reading...

Top Stocks in Asia Expansion

The Asia Expanding Theme offers investors a diverse range of opportunities in the Asian market. This theme encompasses companies from various countries in Asia, including China, South Korea, Indonesia, Japan, India, and the Philippines. Notable companies in this group include NetEase (NTES), JD.com (JD), Baidu (BIDU), TAL Education Group (TAL), Melco Resorts & Entertainment Limited (MLCO), and LexinFintech Holdings Ltd (LX). In this article, we will delve into the details of this theme and highlight some of the top stocks within it. Continue reading...

What Are the Top 5 Books for a Budding Professional Investor?

Investing and trading are undeniably complex arts. Whether you're delving into stocks, forex, commodities, or any other market, the knowledge and strategies you employ can make the difference between success and failure. While many educational institutions don't delve deep into these subjects, there's a goldmine of knowledge waiting for those eager to educate themselves: books. Continue reading...

Top Picks in the Internet Sector: A Financial Analyst's Perspective

The internet sector remains a vibrant and ever-evolving landscape, with a range of companies offering unique value propositions and growth potential. As we delve into this dynamic market, we spotlight the most notable companies, examining their market capitalizations and growth prospects. Continue reading...

What are the Expenses Associated with the Purchase of ETFs?

There may be fees and commissions involved in the purchase of ETFs, and ongoing expenses that reduce earnings over time. Purchasing an ETF will probably involve paying some fees or commissions to the service or broker through which you acquired the shares, but these days those commissions are fairly minimal. These fees will be the same or less than you might pay for using their services to acquire positions in other securities. ETFs are a relatively cheap way to gain an exposure to a particular sector of the market or to take a position that might otherwise be difficult and expensive to research, calculate, and engineer. Continue reading...

Navigating the Digital Age: Top Internet Service Stocks to Watch

The realm of internet services has become a cornerstone of the modern economy, driving innovation and offering unprecedented opportunities for investors. Within this dynamic industry, certain companies stand out, not only for their market dominance but also for their ability to adapt and thrive in an ever-evolving digital landscape. This article delves into the top players in the internet service sector, highlighting their market strategies, financial performance, and potential for future growth. Continue reading...

Top Picks in the Online Streaming Sector

In the ever-evolving landscape of the digital economy, the streaming online sector stands out as a beacon of growth and innovation. This dynamic sector encompasses a broad range of companies, from giants like Netflix to emerging powerhouses in the Chinese market such as Baidu. As we delve into this vibrant industry, it's clear that the companies within it are not just reshaping entertainment but are also at the forefront of technological advancements in content delivery and consumption. Continue reading...

What is the meaning of "Per Capita"?

What is the meaning of "Per Capita"?

Unlock the secrets of economic analysis with "The Significance of Per Capita." Dive into per capita's role in understanding national and global economies. Learn how it differs from median figures, why it's vital for assessing poverty, and explore real-world examples. Discover the power of per capita in shaping informed financial decisions. #Economics #PerCapitaAnalysis Continue reading...

Top Performers in Leasing Financing

The world of leasing financing is an increasingly significant sector within the finance industry, featuring a range of specialty finance companies with varied focuses. From auto finance to airplane leasing, and from real estate lending to student loans, this theme encompasses a broad spectrum of financial activities. Among these, some companies stand out for their performance, market capitalization, and growth potential. This article delves into the details of notable companies like United Rentals (URI), SLM Corp (SLM), and LexinFintech Holdings Ltd (LX), shedding light on why they are considered the best in their class. Continue reading...