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What is commodity pice risk?

Agricultural and mining businesses are exposed to commodity price risk, which is the possibility that the price of the commodity will change unfavorably by the time the commodity is ready to be delivered. They avoid unnecessary risk by using futures contracts, forward contracts, and possibly other derivative instruments. Commodity price risk means that an agricultural or mining business might not be able to predict the revenue that they can generate from the production or extraction of commodities. Continue reading...

What are Industrials Stocks?

Industrials stocks include companies that are in the business of construction and manufacturing. Companies within the sector are those that play a role in infrastructure buildout and development, such as industrial machinery, tools, heavy equipment, engineering, and even aerospace and defense. Industrials companies are cyclicals, meaning they benefit the most during periods of economic expansion and are hurt during recessions. Continue reading...

What are Industry-Specific Mutual Funds?

Industry-specific funds attempt to capture the movements of a single industry. Industry-specific mutual funds will usually limit themselves to investing in particular industries. There are thousands of such funds. Their focus can be very broad (such as technology - here) or very narrow (such as solar energy - here). Investors who would like to gain exposure to specific industries to round out their portfolios can do so with an industry-specific fund which offers diversification among many different holdings in an industry, as opposed to one or two stocks in an industry. Continue reading...

What are Bitcoin Mining Pools?

Individuals who do not have the computing power to compete with large bitcoin mining operations can join a mining pool and split the rewards. Mining pools allow individuals with insufficient computing power to join a mining pool and split the rewards proportionally to the amount of computer power that they contributed. If a user contributes 3% of the computing power that it took for the pool to solve a block, that user will receive 3% of the reward. Continue reading...

How to Mine Litecoin and other Altcoins?

It used to be that litecoin mining could only be done by GPU, but now ASIC machines are getting all the glory. For a time, new miners preferred to mine litecoin instead of bitcoin because ASIC miners had rendered old-fashioned GPU mining for Bitcoin unprofitable. During that time, when ASIC machines had not be designed for Litecoin Scrypt mining, anyone with a good enough GPU could profitably mine litecoin with the same computer they used at home, while they were off at work or asleep not using it. If you aren’t aware, GPUs (graphics cards) compute the kinds of functions necessary for mining at many times the speed that CPUs (core processors) alone would. Continue reading...

How Do You Mine Ethereum?

When mining on the Ethereum blockchain, you are rewarded in Ether, but you may need to do some calculations to find out it if will be profitable for you. Ethereum mining can still be done profitably, as of the time of this writing, by individuals on their home computers, as long as they have decent hardware. This is no longer the case for Bitcoin, Litecoin, and a few other coins, due to the development of ASIC (application-specific integrated circuits) mining rigs used by the nascent mining industry, which have rendered home computers obsolete and have begun to present a significant centralization threat on the decentralized blockchain. Continue reading...

How Does Ethereum Mining Work?

Ethereum mining is the process of solving blocks of encrypted blockchain data using a proof-of-work algorithm and occasionally being rewarded with Ether. Blockchain data is validated and added to the distributed ledger by computers on the network performing the task of “mining,” which is continually attempting to solve puzzles, basically, which each unlock a block of encrypted data containing information about transactions, and, on the Ethereum platform, information about distributed application functions and smart contracts. Once a block is unlocked, the data within is shared with the network and added to the distributed ledger. Continue reading...

How does Bitcoin Mining Work?

Anyone with a computer connected to the internet can potentially be a bitcoin miner. Bitcoin’s blockchain technology requires that a large network of computers, running the same client software, be used to randomly succeed at validating blocks of encrypted transactions every 10 minutes or so. That’s where bitcoin mining comes in. Mining is the act of letting one’s computer run what’s known as the “hash function” over and over and over in an attempt to crack the codes on the blocks that need validation. The codes that need cracking are all similar and are only difficult enough to require an average of 10 minutes for a random mining computer to get the right answer. The code and the answers are only significant in that they take time to complete, and that they allow the transactions to be validated and added to the ledger of all bitcoin transactions. Continue reading...

How Does Cloud Mining Bitcoin Work?

It is possible to participate in bitcoin mining indirectly, by partially funding a remote mining operation. Cloud mining is separate and distinct from pool mining, because instead of owning hardware and pooling resources with other miners to increase the likelihood of securing profits, cloud mining simply secures funding from investors, essentially, who have a contract to participate in profits of a mining pool in a remote locations based on the bandwidth of Gigahashes/s that they would like to fund (“buy”). Continue reading...

How Do You Calculate Mining Profitability?

Mining for cryptocurrency may or may not be profitable for you, but the good news is that you can easily run the numbers. Mining profitability is will primarily depend on the hashrate (mining speed) of your mining hardware, and the amount of energy it takes to run the hardware. Mining software usually comes with system monitors that will tell you with a fair degree of accuracy what the numbers are, and several online calculators exist to help as well. The cost of energy is the main concern, many miners will seek to be near the cheapest sources of energy, such as a hydroelectric plant in Sweden or countries with energy subsidies such as China. Continue reading...

What are Sector ETFs?

Sector ETFs hold a portfolio of stocks and other securities that represent a specific sector of the market. Sector ETFS are managed portfolios of securities which are representative of a specific industry or market sector. They might passively track a sector index or be actively seeking alpha over the sector benchmark. The word “sector” is a broad term for a grouping of companies in the market, but the word “industry” is sometimes used interchangeably. There are 10 sectors in the S&P 500: healthcare, financials, energy, consumer staples, consumer discretionary, utilities, materials, industrials, information technology, and telecommunications (telecom) services. Continue reading...

What is the Dow Jones Industrial Average?

The Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) is an index comprised of 30 'significant' U.S. stocks, typically the biggest and most frequently traded. The Dow Jones Industrial Average was created in 1896 by Charles Dow, as a way to track the general trend of U.S. stocks. The index is price-weighted versus cap-weighted, meaning that if a company splits 2 for 1 its contribution to the index will drop by half (even though the company's value did not change). Continue reading...

How Do You Set Up a Bitcoin Miner?

Setting up a bitcoin miner can be as simple as downloading a mining client program, or as complicated as building a custom rig. Bitcoin mining used to be cheaper and easier to do than it is today, but it can still be relatively simple to execute. In the past, a computer with a CPU could crunch through enough hashes to solve a few blocks and turn a profit. Now, a good GPU, that is, a Graphics Processing Unit card connected to the motherboard of a computer, or a series of GPUs, is par for the course because they can perform many times as many hashes per second than a CPU can alone. This is the case even if the CPU has several cores, and it just has to do with the way that GPUs handle their work. Continue reading...

What is a resistance line?

A resistance line is the inverse of a support line and represents the glass ceiling through which a security price has difficulty breaking through. Resistance lines are calculated as part of analysis methods which use moving averages and standard deviation, or similar calculations, to put a range of probability on the expected movement of a security price, with the resistance line representing the top of that range. Continue reading...

What is a support line?

A support line represents an estimation of where a price is likely to stop moving downwards, based on recent data and analysis methods. It is arrived at with different formulas for different indicator methods, but it is generally a line derived from moving averages and standard deviation which represents a lower level at which traders would expect a price to rebound back upwards. Several methods of technical and fundamental analysis plot a support line or two as part of a graphical representation of trends. Theoretically, a price will only deviate so far from its moving average before bouncing back toward the middle. Continue reading...

What are Real Estate Funds?

Real estate mutual funds invest in publicly-traded companies in the real estate industry, and are slightly different than REITs. A real estate mutual fund invests in companies in the real estate industry. These companies will include real estate brokerage companies in the commercial, residential, or raw land sector, as well as the lending institutions that are involved in such transactions, among other holdings. Continue reading...

Top Stocks in the Minerals Industry

The minerals industry, characterized by its quest to unearth mineral reserves and process metals, is a cornerstone of the global economy. Its significance cannot be overstated, as it provides critical materials for jewelry, industrial applications, and investments. In this article, we dive into the financial aspects of the most notable companies within this sector, focusing on their market capitalizations, industry roles, and investment potential. Continue reading...

What is the Capital Market Line?

The Capital Market Line is a complex concept, but put simply, it is a calculation meant to give the investor/analyst a range of potential returns for a portfolio, based on the risk free rate and the standard deviation of the portfolio. The Capital Market Line is a part of the capital asset pricing model (CAPM) that solves for expected return at various levels of risk. It takes into consideration a portfolio’s risk assets and the risk-free rate. Continue reading...

What is the security market line?

The Security Market Line (SML) is a visualization of the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) and shows the theoretical relationship between risk and return between securities and the entire market. The SML is plotted on a graph bound by an x-axis, which represents Beta (volatility above or below the market average), and a y-axis, which represents the rate of return. Beta is a volatility indicator that measures how many changes in price, and by how much, a security experiences over an amount of time. It describes whether the risk associated with a particular security is above or below the average of the market (or a more specific index), where 1 is a correlation with the market, and numbers above or below describe increased or decreased volatility, respectively. Continue reading...

How Does Ethereum Work?

Ethereum uses a blockchain that looks very similar to Bitcoin’s until you get into the details. Ethereum is a platform on which transactions can be made using Ether or other tokens which have been made using the protocol, and smart contracts and decentralized applications (Ðapps) can be executed using the distributed computing power of what’s called the Ethereum Virtual Machine. When viewed from different angles, Ethereum is an open-source coding environment, a market upon which to distribute new blockchain-based applications, and a distributed computing machine that processes functions of the blockchain applications across a broad network. Distributed computing itself is not that new, but distributed computing on a blockchain is. Continue reading...

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