What is a Multiple?

A multiple is a measure of a stock’s value, calculated by comparing one metric to another. The most common is the metric comparing a stock’s price to its earnings. The most commonly used ‘multiple’ calculation is price to earnings, or P/E. This tells you the price of stock relative to its earnings per share. P/E’s are most useful when comparing stocks in the same industry or sector. For instance, a P/E of 25x may seem high to most, but it’s actually quite normal for stocks in the technology sector. Continue reading...

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What is the Equity Multiplier?

The Equity Multiplier is a number used to compare companies, arrived at by dividing total assets by owner’s equity, and it gives an idea of what proportion of the company’s assets have been financed through equity vs debt. In general a low Equity Multiplier is a good sign because it means that a higher proportion of equity has been used to acquire assets, as opposed to funding assets with debt. However, the absence of significant debt could mean that the company lacked the credit rating to issue debt or take out loans. Continue reading...

What is Total Enterprise Value?

Enterprise value is an amount that would have to be paid for a company to acquire all of its equity and debt. It is notable that cash and cash equivalents are left out of this equation since that amount is netted out of a cash purchase. The basic formula for enterprise value is market capitalization + debt obligations and any minority interests or preferred shares. This regularly appears in the numerator position in the EV/EBITDA ratio. Often investors can just look at the market capitalization of a company to get an estimation of the size of the company. Continue reading...

What is Enterprise Value?

Enterprise Value is the total cost to acquire a company. The Enterprise Value of a company is the amount that would have to be paid for full ownership of it, which would include market capitalization (price per share x shares outstanding) + net debt (all liabilities - cash and equivalents). Market cap alone is technically just shareholders equity, and not capital from debt, so Enterprise Value adds that in for consideration. Enterprise value is the numerator in EV/E (Enterprise Value over EBITDA), a very common valuation ratio. Continue reading...

What is EBITDA?

EBITDA stands for Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization, and is used as a ballpark figure for where the company’s earnings are without these expenses. It gives a picture of the total operating revenue of a company with the expenses that are related to financing decision and the tax environment left out. Accountants can calculate EBITDA by taking net income (earnings, or operational earnings) and adding interest payments, tax obligation, depreciation of hard assets, and amortization of intangibles back into it. Continue reading...

Who Offers Defined Benefit Plans?

Any employer can offer a Defined Benefit plan, but not many do anymore. Before the introduction of Defined Contribution Plans, most large corporations such as General Electric, General Motors, etc. offered only Defined Benefit Plans. Over the years, it has put a huge burden on these corporations to guarantee the performance of these plans. If the plan has not performed according to the assumptions, the company would have to contribute the difference, which would have to come from their profits. In order to shift the burden to the employees, most companies now offer Defined Contribution Plans (such as 401(k)s, etc.) instead of Defined Benefit Plans. Continue reading...

What is an Earnings Multiplier?

The earnings multiplier is more commonly known as the P/E ratio (price/earnings ratio). By putting the price of a stock over the earnings per share, you have a proportion that can be compared across various securities with different price points. It may be common for a company in one industry to have a different-size P/E than another, but comparing a company to its peers will prove helpful. Analysts use the P/E ratio to determine whether a stock is overpriced or underpriced, and the same goes for the market as a whole. When the average P/E for all of the stocks in an index is found and compared to historical levels, investors can get clues about whether the current price can be supported for long by fundamentals. Continue reading...

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Can Blockchains Reduce Fraud and Failed Payments?

Blockchains can validate, clear, and document transfers of value much faster and more securely than traditional methods. Blockchains offer an extremely efficient and reliable means of processing transactions of any size in a way that reduced the likelihood of fraud and failed payments. If a cryptocurrency wallet says that there is a specific balance present in a specific wallet, then that balance is there; it can be validated using the transaction record held on the thousands of computers on a b... Continue reading...

Can Something Happen to My Defined Benefit Plan?

The Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation will insure benefits up to a point, but it may not replace the full value of a pension if a plan goes belly-up. While the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC) insures thousands of Pensions across the country, the entire benefit of your Defined Benefit Plan is in no way guaranteed. Some corporations can “freeze” your pension, meaning they stop the counter on the number of years you’ve worked, and use that as the number to calculate your monthly payments. Many pensions today are struggling after the long period of low interest rates on fixed instruments like government bonds. Continue reading...

What is the FTSE 100?

The FTSE 100 Index - also known as the Financial Times Stock Exchange or the “Footsie” - tracks the performance of the largest 100 stocks by market capitalization traded on the London Stock Exchange. Since many of these companies are multinationals, however, the FTSE 100 does not provide the best gauge for how the UK economy is performing. The FTSE 225 is a better barometer for the UK. The FTSE 100, however, much like the S&amp;P 500 provides a good general gauge for how stocks are performing globally. Continue reading...

Bitcoin's Taproot Upgrade: What Are the Key Takeaways?

In the fast-paced world of cryptocurrencies, innovation is constant. Bitcoin, the pioneer of the digital currency realm, has recently undergone its most significant upgrade in the last four years – the Taproot upgrade. This upgrade holds the promise of transforming Bitcoin's functionality, transaction efficiency, privacy, and even its role in the world of decentralized finance (DeFi). In this article, we'll explore what Taproot is and why it's making waves in the crypto community. Continue reading...

What are Double and Triple ETFs?

Double and triple ETFs are also known as leveraged ETFs, and their goal is to magnify the performance of the index they follow. Using futures contracts and other derivative instruments, 2x or 3x ETFs attempt to magnify the performance of an index, with the goal of achieving the result daily. Because they also compound daily, they are not usually held for more than a few days. These are also called leveraged ETFs because they use margin, futures contracts, and other derivative instruments to give an investor this magnified exposure. They give you two or three times (respectively) the profits but also two or three times the losses, so one must be very cautious when dealing with them. Continue reading...

What Is Value?

Value is a term that permeates the world of business and finance, shaping decisions and strategies at every turn. From assessing the worth of assets to determining investment opportunities, understanding the concept of value is crucial for investors, executives, and analysts alike. In this article, we delve into the various dimensions of value, its forms, and its implications in the realm of business and finance. Continue reading...

What is the definition of a conglomerate?

Unlock the world of conglomerates in this insightful exploration. Discover their formation, advantages like risk diversification and capital allocation, and challenges such as the conglomerate discount and complexity. Delve into their historical rise and contemporary examples like Reliance Industries, Meta Platforms Inc., and Amazon. Stay tuned to witness the versatility of conglomerates in the ever-changing business landscape. #Conglomerates #BusinessInsights #Diversification Continue reading...

What is Weighted Average?

A weighted average is a calculation considers the relative importance or relevance of a piece of data. Weighted averages multiply numbers in the average by a predetermined factor, like time, that enhances the relevance given to the number. One example of a weighted average is the&nbsp;Exponential Moving Average (EMA), an alternative to the&nbsp;Simple Moving Average&nbsp;(SMA)&nbsp;line which gives greater weight to the more recent data. SMAs are effective in their simplicity, but their efficacy is most closely tied to how they are used. Continue reading...

What is a weighted average, and how does it differ from a simple average?

Ever wondered how to get more precise insights from your data? Enter the world of weighted averages! Unlike simple averages that treat all numbers equally, weighted averages consider the relative importance of each value. Whether you're an investor calculating cost basis or a teacher grading assignments, weighted averages offer a more accurate picture. Our guide breaks down the what, why, and how of this essential mathematical tool. Dive in to unlock the power of precision in a world of numbers and make more informed decisions. Continue reading...

How are My Retirement Benefits Computed?

Each Defined Benefit Plan has its own formula and therefore its own calculations. These formulas need to be arranged by an enrolled actuary to insure that they’ll work over time and will hold up to IRS scrutiny. In general, however, the calculations are strongly based on factors such as your age, your salary, and the number of years you have spent working for the company. For every bit of salary you collect, or length of time you add to your tenure, you add incremental amounts to the set benefit waiting for you in retirement. Continue reading...