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What is short selling?

If you expect that a security will depreciate, you can sell it on the market without owning it, and, if your expectations prove to be right, you can buy it for less before “covering” your position – keeping the difference in profit. Short selling is done with the help of a brokerage/custodian, who will lend you the security so that you can sell it, and they will charge interest on the loaned amount until you actually purchase the security to “cover” your loan. Continue reading...

What is naked shorting?

In a regular short sale transaction, the seller would locate and borrow the security being sold before the sale. Naked shorting means that the seller has not located or secured the security being short sold, and is in many cases illegal. Naked shorting is illegal because it accompanies an extreme likelihood that the security sold short will be FTD (Fail to Deliver) within the settlement period. Naked shorting is selling something that you do not have, without confirming that you can get the security to deliver, or even that the security exists. Naked short selling has a long history. Continue reading...

What is a short sale?

A short sale is the sale of a security not owned by an investor, which the investor has borrowed from the broker in order to sell. An investor can use his broker to give him the ability to sell shares that he does not have in his inventory. The investor believes that the stock price will be lower in the near future, and will replace the borrowed shares by purchasing them at the (possibly) lower price in the future. Continue reading...

What is a stock downtrend?

A downtrend occurs when the successive peaks of a security's price trend downward without recovering from the troughs, with successively lower market peaks each time. Downtrends may happen in a span of minutes or months, depending on the security being discussed. In a downtrend, it may not be advisable to purchase (or “go long” on) a security, since the duration of the trend is unknown. Many traders, however, see it as an opportunity for short selling. Continue reading...

What is Cash Collateral?

Cash collateral is liquid cash and cash equivalents designated as collateral for loans and debts of various sorts. One frequently used example of cash collateral is cash used in short selling of securities in a brokerage account. While securities equal to significantly more than the required cash margin can be substituted for cash, the most cost-effective and least risky way to maintain margin requirements is with cash and cash equivalents. Continue reading...

What Does 'Buy to Cover' Mean?

‘Buy to Cover’ is a term that applies when an investor buys shares of a security that they had previously sold short. When an investor sells a security short, it means they are selling shares they do not actually own, in hopes that the price of the stock falls. If the price does fall, an investor could then ‘buy to cover’ at a lower price and then return the shares to the broker that lent them, thus realizing the profit in the price difference. Continue reading...

What is an Uptick?

An uptick is an incremental increase in the trading price of a security. Uptick is a slight increase in the trading price of a security. The word comes from the "ticker price" of a stock, which used to be printed out on ticker tape from a printer connected to telecommunication lines which reported updates in trading information throughout the day. Now tickers run electronically across the bottom of television screens and so on. Continue reading...

What are Bear Market Funds?

Bear market funds are designed to profit when the market or sector they follow declines. Bear Market Funds make money in declining markets, as opposed to Bull Market Funds. If you’re bearish on a sector, industry, commodity, the market, or anything else that’s tradable, rest assured that you’ll find a Bear Market Fund for it. There are also 2X Bear Market Funds, 3X Bear Market Funds, etc…, which use margin, short-selling, and derivative instruments to acquire large leveraged positions. Continue reading...

What is a Plus Tick?

A plus tick is a transaction which occurs at a price higher than the transaction before it, also called an uptick, but often used in relation to a zero plus tick, which is explained below. A plus tick is an indication that the security in question is not declining at a given moment in time. In other words, the most recent traded price of a security is higher than the price it traded at prior. The term ‘uptick’ refers to the same thing, but "plus tick" is used in reference to the first part of a zero plus tick event: an uptick occurs in which the price traded is higher than the previous price, and then a trade occurs in which the price remains the same. Continue reading...

What is the Short Interest Ratio?

The Short Interest Ratio (SIR) measures investor sentiment for a given company and is calculated using the number of shares being shorted divided by the average daily trading volume of the stock. Also called the short ratio or float short, the SIR is a ratio of the number of shares being shorted divided by the average daily trading volume for the stock over the last 30 days. The ratio can be interpreted as the number of days it takes short sellers to repurchase borrowed shares, or an approximation for the number of shares that have been sold short and not yet covered as a percentage of all trading volume. Continue reading...

What is After-Hours Trading?

After-Hours Trading on the Nasdaq can take place after market close from 4-8pm EST or in the pre-market hours from 4-9:30am EST. Pre- and Post-market trading used to be reserved for large institutional investors or high net worth individuals, but is now made possible through the improvements to electronic trading networks and the demand from individuals trading from their computers at home. Interestingly, institutional investors can trade anonymously on the after-hours Nasdaq market, such that virtually no one knows what positions they take during that time. This is called trading in “dark pools of liquidity.” Traders on the after-hours Nasdaq cannot make certain kinds of trades or use certain instruments. Continue reading...

What is an Unrealized Gain?

Gains and losses are only "real" when shares are sold or withdrawals are made, but up until that point the gains were more of a notional amount, and are said to be "unrealized." A more salient way to understand unrealized gains is to look at the opposite: unrealized losses. If a person makes an investment of $1,000 and the value of the shares drops sharply the next week, has the person lost any money? The answer of course is no, not unless he sells the shares and takes the lower market price for them. Continue reading...

What is Investment Interest Expense?

IIE is deductible from taxes, and is usually used to deduct the interest paid on a margin loan used to buy taxable securities, when there is a gain to offset. Investment interest expense is the term for interest which has been paid in order to hold an investment position. It comes into play when filing taxes. An individual can list interest expenses on a Form 1040. The most common place to incur an interest expense when investing is through the use of margin in an investment account. Continue reading...

What is intraday trading?

Intraday trading means opening and closing a position, or buying and selling (or short-selling and covering) a security within the same trading day. Intraday traders are active during market hours, buying, selling, shorting, and so forth, to capitalize on the movements of the markets during the day, and they primarily trade positions which are opened and closed during the same day. Intraday traders use technical indicators to find inefficiencies or price fluctuations that they believe will correct. Continue reading...

What is a Bear Squeeze?

Investors who were bearish on a stock may have chosen to short-sell shares in the hopes that they could cover at a lower price. Short selling is when a broker facilitates the actions of an investor who wishes to take on the risk of replacing sold shares of a particular stock because he or she believes the price will be lower when he or she replaces the inventory. The broker passes the proceeds of the sale (minus a fee) along to the investor who is taking the risk of replacing the shares, and charges the investor interest or fees as long as the shares are outstanding. Investors need to cover the short before prices go up and it results in a loss for them. Continue reading...

What is a short position?

A short position is a sale made by an investor for a security which he or she will deliver to the buyer in the near future, but which he or she is hoping will go down in price in the near future so that a profit can be retained from the price collected in the short sale. A short position is a bearish play on a security which an investor believes will decrease in price in the near future. The investor offers shares for sale, and collects the current market price for the shares from the buyer. Continue reading...

What is a short squeeze?

A short squeeze occurs when many short-sellers attempt to cover their positions at the same time, and it drives prices up rapidly. A short squeeze is a bottleneck situation where many investors who have sold a security short, suddenly become very interested in covering their positions - usually, because the stock starts on a strong uptrend. The squeeze will actually cause the price of the security to rapidly increase, more than it would otherwise, because so much demand has hit the security at once. Continue reading...

What is the Broadening Wedge Descending (Bearish) Pattern?

The Broadening Wedge Descending pattern forms when a security price makes lower lows (1, 3, 5) and lower highs (2, 4), forming two downward sloping lines that expand over time (kind of like a pointed down megaphone shape). This pattern may form when large investors spread out their selling over a period of time, and the Breakout can occur in either direction. When the initial selling occurs, other market participants react to falling price and jump on the bandwagon to participate. Then the value investors begin to sell, believing the price has not fallen enough, which spurs the original large investor to resume selling again. Continue reading...

What is Dividend Selling?

If a person buys a stock that pays a dividend on or after the ex-dividend date, where we understand “ex” to mean “after,” it means that the buyer would be buying the shares for the amount that still has a dividend (or some of it) priced-in, but the seller, not the buyer, will get to have the dividend, and the share price will go down immediately after the dividend is paid. Stock prices will tend to go up in anticipation of a dividend, and more so after the declaration date, which might be anywhere from two months to two weeks before the actual dividend is paid, when the company announces when a dividend is to be paid and how much it will be. Continue reading...

What is adaptive selling?

Adaptive selling is a sales and marketing principal where the product or services offered are framed or actually modified based on the preferences or demographics of the audience or client. Adaptive selling requires the ability to customize a shopper’s experience as they interface with the real or virtual storefront. The sales system leaves room to learn about the customer and to adopt the language and products offered based on changing interpretations of the customer. This may require a well-trained sales representative or a well-designed computer algorithm, as has been implemented on some e-commerce sites. Continue reading...

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