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What are Accounting Controls?

Internal control systems and procedures can ensure the accuracy and reliability of financial accounts at a business. Accounting controls are meant to ensure that the numbers being put onto the books are accurate. Internal controls are the practices that employees are trained to do, and may be audited on, which general involve some oversight or double-checking to filter out mistakes. This not only prevents mistakes, but also malfeasance, embezzlement and fraud. Accounting done wrong can result in criminal penalties, bankruptcy, and tax problems. Continue reading...

What is the Federal Discount Rate?

The Federal Discount Rate is the interest rate that the Federal Reserve charges banks for borrowing money. This is usually done overnight to satisfy reserve requirements on short notice. It is different than the Federal Funds Rate, which is the rate that banks charge each other. The 12 regional Federal Reserve Banks determine their Federal Discount Rate in board meetings every 14 days. It is the interest that will be charged to member banks to borrow directly from the Fed, which they do at times in order to make sure they have enough capital reserves to satisfy regulations. Continue reading...

What is backtesting?

Analytical financial theories and trading strategies can be “backtested” by applying them to historical data. Backtesting is to simulate what it would have been like to use a certain strategy or indicator in the past. Because markets are more complicated than a simple algorithm, such as an assumed future rate of return, it is preferable and somewhat more dramatic to use actual historical data for testing. There is an abundance of historical market data available to those who would like to use it for backtesting a theory, strategy, or indicator. Continue reading...

What is SIBOR?

SIBOR is the primary interbank loan rate quoted in the Asian markets. SIBOR stands for the Singapore Interbank Offered Rate, and is a regional equivalent of the LIBOR, or London Interbank Offered Rate. It serves as a reference rate and is a composite of the reported rates offered by member banks of the Association of Banks in Singapore (ABS) for the lending of unsecured funds over several time frames. Continue reading...

What is the LIBOR?

The LIBOR is the benchmark interest rate that the world’s leading banks pay each other for short-term loans (interbank rate). It stands for ‘London Interbank Offered Rate’ and essentially serves as the benchmark that global banks use to determine the interest cost of short-term loans. The rate then becomes useful in determining - and as a reference point - for government bonds, mortgages, student loans, credit cards, and derivatives. Continue reading...

What is the Interbank Rate?

The interbank rate is the average lending rate used between banks of comparable size and creditworthiness when they borrow money from each other. The Federal Funds Rate is the benchmark in America, while LIBOR (the London Interbank Offered Rate) is more prevalent elsewhere. These are indexes which are used to determine rates and terms for other financial instruments and swaps. The Prime Rate, or the rate banks will used for their most credit-worthy customers, is tied to the interbank rate but is slightly higher of course. In America the Federal Funds Rate is so called because the Central bank participates in the lending. This is sometimes called the overnight rate when it refers to money that is lent between banks overnight. Continue reading...

What is Accommodative Monetary Policy?

Accommodative monetary policy is when a central bank makes it easier for banks and consumers to borrow money by lowering the interbank exchange rate. A central bank, such as the Federal Reserve Bank in the United States, can influence the economy by loosening or tightening the money supply. Loosening the money supply is known as accommodative policy, because it give the businesses and individuals in the country access to a higher degree of liquidity. Continue reading...

Learn Forex Trading

FOREX is an international market which allows participants to exchange various currencies at the current rates of exchange and in the future. Forex trading can be profitable but it can also be risky. The daily volume of FOREX is about 3 trillion dollars, which dwarfs equity trading internationally in terms of daily volume, being somewhere around $30 billion. With so much movement and liquidity, it can also dwarf equity markets in terms of volatility. This can present a large amount of risk if investors are not knowledgeable and prepared to hedge or exit their positions. Nothing should be invested In Forex positions that an investor cannot stand to lose. Continue reading...

What is FOREX?

Forex is the common name for the Foreign Exchange market, an international network of currency trading that is active 24/7. Forex is by far the most active and highest-volume market in the world, because it involves large trades between international institutions in an effort to diversify or consolidate their exposure to various currencies. Individual traders can also participate, usually by trading nano-lots, which are 100-unit increments of currency. Continue reading...

What is Federal Reserve Credit?

The Federal Reserve extends credit in the form of short-term loans to member banks. Banks avoid taking loans from the Fed if they can, because it is viewed as a sign of instability. The Federal Discount Rate applies to loans taken from what is known as the discount window at the Fed, and it tends to be a higher rate than what is charged between two banks. The Federal Reserve will extend credit only to banking institutions that are members of the Federal Reserve system. Continue reading...

What are Some of the Biggest Bankruptcies in Recent History?

Before Lehman Brothers and Bear Sterns, probably the most well-known and publicized bankruptcy was the infamous Enron scandal. To summarize, Enron executives, fully aware that the company was insolvent, started to sell their stock, while convincing the general public that the stock would continue to rise and the company was prospering (despite actual horrendous losses). As the stock dropped lower and lower, the executives continued to lie to the public, and most people fell into the trap, convinced that the low stock prices were a great opportunity (the stock was going to rebound any day – or so they thought). Continue reading...

What is a Credit Crunch?

A credit crunch is when access to liquidity dries up dramatically in rapid fashion, or becomes less accessible due to a spike in borrowing rates. Central banks will often step-in to try and curb the lack of liquidity by offering the markets access to cash at lower than market rates, in the event of a crisis. Perhaps the most famous credit crunch in history occurred in late 2007 and early 2008, when bank balance sheets became highly leveraged overnight due to mark-to-market accounting rules that were applied to the mortgage backed security portfolios on their balance sheets. Continue reading...

What is the definition of the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (SOFR), and how does it relate to its historical development?

Discover the Evolution of SOFR! 📈 From replacing LIBOR to its foundation in real transactions, learn how this benchmark interest rate is shaping the financial world. Explore its historical development and impacts on derivatives and loans. Stay updated in the ever-evolving finance landscape. #SOFR #FinanceEvolution Continue reading...

What are Unlisted Trading Privileges (UTP) and how do they function?

Discover the World of Unlisted Trading Privileges (UTP) and Their Impact on Modern Trading. Learn how UTPs provide market accessibility, enhance liquidity, and promote cross-market trading. Dive into the Unlisted Trading Privileges Act of 1994, key provisions, and regulatory oversight. Stay ahead in the dynamic world of finance! #UTP #Trading #Finance Continue reading...

Where can I get information about private placements?

The short answer is, you can’t. Private placements have no reporting or registration requirements with the SEC or other entities. Sometimes this can be good for investors who enjoy the discretion. But it can also be a shield for unethical business people who prefer to avoid regulatory oversight. There is no source for detailed information about private placements unless you personally know a general partner who can describe to you his project, or who comes highly recommended with a lot of references. If an offering seeks to raise over $2 million in the capital in a year’s time, they are obligated under Regulation D to provide audited financial statements to the investors. Continue reading...

What is FINRA?

FINRA stands for Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, and they regulate securities firms in the United States. FINRA has no political affiliation and is charged with governing all business dealings conducted between dealers, brokers and all public investors. In other words, the rules that dictate how your financial advisor interacts with you are set forth by FINRA. In all, FINRA oversees more than 4,500 brokerage firms, approximately 160,000 branch offices and more than half a million registered securities representatives, as of 2016. Continue reading...

What is the FHFA?

The Federal Housing Finance Association is the Conservator of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac since the 2008 meltdown. The FHFA was established as an independent government entity to oversee the secondary mortgage market. The FHFA is a regulatory agency which took over for the Federal Housing Finance Board and the Office of Federal Housing Enterprise Oversight (OFHEO). It was created in 2008 by the Housing and Economic Recovery Act (HERA), and it oversees the operations of Freddie Mac, Fannie Mae, and the 11 federal home loan (FHL) banks. If you’ll recall, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac provide liquidity to banks and transfer risk from them by buying their mortgage cash flows from them. Continue reading...

What is the commodity futures trading commission?

The Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) is an independent government agency that regulates the futures market. Futures are not considered securities, so the CFTC has jurisdiction over such exchanges while the SEC does not. The CFTC is the regulatory authority for the futures trade. This includes futures on currency, indexes, and stocks. Futures are not technically considered securities, because a security is defined as a contract that depends on the performance of a third party, while futures contracts only depend on two people. Any options that stem from futures are considered securities, however. Continue reading...

What is pre-market trading and what are the benefits of participating in pre-market trading?

Venturing into the world of stock trading? Dive into the realm of pre-market trading, a unique window before the regular market session. This guide unravels the mechanics of pre-market trading, highlighting its advantages, like quick reactions to overnight news, and its challenges, such as heightened volatility. Whether you're an institutional investor or a retail trader, understanding pre-market trading is crucial in today's dynamic financial landscape. Equip yourself with insights on how early trading decisions can shape the day's market movements. Join us as we explore this fascinating facet of the stock market. Continue reading...

What is the foreign corrupt practices act?

The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act attempts to reduce the possibility that a corporation with American affiliations will engage in the bribery of foreign officials. The act was created in 1977 and has since been amended and expanded several times. The SEC and the Department of Justice are both responsible for enforcing the FCPA, which is a law designed to prevent US-based companies from engaging in corrupt practices abroad. Continue reading...