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What is SIBOR?

SIBOR is the primary interbank loan rate quoted in the Asian markets. SIBOR stands for the Singapore Interbank Offered Rate, and is a regional equivalent of the LIBOR, or London Interbank Offered Rate. It serves as a reference rate and is a composite of the reported rates offered by member banks of the Association of Banks in Singapore (ABS) for the lending of unsecured funds over several time frames. Continue reading...

What is Euro LIBOR?

The primary benchmark for short-term interbank loans around the world is the LIBOR, and the Euro Libor is the LIBOR denominated in Euros. There are 16 banks in London that set the LIBOR at the start of each day, and it signifies the average lending rate that the banks would charge each other for short-term loans. The EURO LIBOR is the same, denominated in euros. LIBOR stands for the London Interbank Offered Rate. Continue reading...

What is the LIBOR?

The LIBOR is the benchmark interest rate that the world’s leading banks pay each other for short-term loans (interbank rate). It stands for ‘London Interbank Offered Rate’ and essentially serves as the benchmark that global banks use to determine the interest cost of short-term loans. The rate then becomes useful in determining - and as a reference point - for government bonds, mortgages, student loans, credit cards, and derivatives. Continue reading...

What is the Interbank Rate?

The interbank rate is the average lending rate used between banks of comparable size and creditworthiness when they borrow money from each other. The Federal Funds Rate is the benchmark in America, while LIBOR (the London Interbank Offered Rate) is more prevalent elsewhere. These are indexes which are used to determine rates and terms for other financial instruments and swaps. The Prime Rate, or the rate banks will used for their most credit-worthy customers, is tied to the interbank rate but is slightly higher of course. In America the Federal Funds Rate is so called because the Central bank participates in the lending. This is sometimes called the overnight rate when it refers to money that is lent between banks overnight. Continue reading...

What is a Variable Cost?

When budgeting for companies, some expenses are fixed overhead and some are variable, which depend on the amount of work being done. The direct cost of materials and labor are a good example of variable costs that will fluctuate with production levels. There may be an equation that the company can use to reliably predict these variable costs, but they are not fixed costs. From an accounting perspective, of course, these costs would be in separate sections. Fixed costs include warehousing, depreciation, insurances, rent, taxes, salaries, and so forth. These can be put into the budget before anything else happens or any orders have been taken for the year. The variable costs must be taken into account on the fly. Continue reading...

What is the Unemployment Rate?

There are a few ways to measure unemployment, but it is normally interpreted as a percentage of the working-age population that does not have a job. The statistics that are used to determine unemployment rate typically use the number of unemployed people who are actively searching for a job. The Bureau of Labor Statistics conducts a monthly poll called the Current Population Survey which goes out to about 50,000 households, and this is a significant source of unemployment data. Continue reading...

Who Establishes a 401(k)?

Employers make the decision to establish a 40(k), but it has to be good enough for employees to want to participate. An employer is responsible for establishing a 401(k) and for overseeing it as the sponsor and fiduciary. A self-employed individual can also establish an Individual 401(k), which has the same contribution limits and requires none of the testing or auditing of a regular plan. Other options for work-site retirement plans are SIMPLE IRAs, SEP IRAs, and various kinds of profit-sharing and deferred compensation arrangements. Continue reading...

How is the Consumer Price Index (CPI) Calculated?

The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is calculated using prices of sample goods from predetermined urban areas. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the CPI is a product of a series of interrelated samples. First, using data from the 1990 Census of Population, BLS selected the urban areas from which data on prices were collected and chose the housing units within each area that were eligible for use in the shelter component of the CPI. The Census of Population also provided data on the number of consumers represented by each area selected as a CPI price collection area. Continue reading...

What Is the London Interbank Offered Rate?

The London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) was once a globally accepted benchmark interest rate, playing a pivotal role in the financial industry. It represented the average interest rate at which major global banks borrowed from one another, spanning various currencies and maturities. However, the legacy of LIBOR is marred by manipulation, scandals, and concerns about its credibility. In this article, we will delve into the world of LIBOR, its calculation, uses, history, alternatives, and its eventual phase-out. Continue reading...

What is the definition of the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (SOFR), and how does it relate to its historical development?

Discover the Evolution of SOFR! 📈 From replacing LIBOR to its foundation in real transactions, learn how this benchmark interest rate is shaping the financial world. Explore its historical development and impacts on derivatives and loans. Stay updated in the ever-evolving finance landscape. #SOFR #FinanceEvolution Continue reading...

How have the definitions of blue-collar and white-collar?

Explore the evolving definitions of blue-collar and white-collar workers in today's dynamic labor market. This article unveils the historical background, the traditional distinctions, and the emerging trends that blur the lines between these classifications. Understand how technology, education, and societal shifts are reshaping these age-old concepts. Continue reading...

What Are the Basics of Eurodollar Futures Trading?

The deep liquidity and long-term trending qualities of the eurodollar futures market offer opportunities for traders, both small and large, seeking exposure to U.S. dollar-denominated deposits held outside the United States. Often confused with the EUR/USD currency pair or euro forex futures, eurodollars hold no association with Europe’s single currency introduced in 1999. Instead, they represent time deposits in U.S. dollars located in banks outside the U.S., carrying specific attributes that distinguish them within the financial landscape. Continue reading...

What is the Cost of Goods Sold?

The Cost of Goods Sold, or COGS, represents the overhead associated with the materials and labor, which were needed to produce the goods sold during a given period. The COGS calculation is only concerned with the production costs of a good, and does not take distribution and sales force costs into account. It will always include the direct materials cost and direct labor cost for each item, but indirect overhead associated with production, such facility costs, are distributed between Inventory and COGS, according to Generally Accepted Accounting Practices (GAAP). Continue reading...

What is a Rate Swap?

A rate swap is the exchange of cash flows on underlying principals which are not exchanged. It is an over-the-counter contract between two institutions to trade the cash flows on two comparable principal amounts, but not to exchange the actual principal amounts. Institutions might prefer this arrangement because they only have access to floating interest rates or are overweight in them and would prefer to have some fixed rate interest cash flow, or vice versa. These swaps might occur between banks on opposite sides of the world to take advantage of rates elsewhere or to simply diversify their risks. Continue reading...

What is Monetary Policy?

Monetary policy is the stance of the central bank at any given time regarding the tightening or loosening of rates, or the issuance of new currency denominations, that will affect the money supply in the country. Monetary policy is the prerogative of the central bank but may be influenced by congress as well as private banking institutions and the central banks of other countries. The goal of monetary policy is to keep the Federal Funds Rate or the LIBOR, or whatever it might be depending on the country, at just the right level to keep the economy going in the direction that will be most helpful. Continue reading...

What Is Marxism and Differentiates from Other Socio-Political Theories?

Journey into the world of Karl Marx, the visionary behind Marxism. From dissecting capitalism's flaws to envisioning a revolutionary alternative, Marx's ideologies have shaped centuries of socio-political discourse. Delve into the essence of class struggle, the critique of economic disparities, and the quest for a just world. As society grapples with modern challenges, Marx's legacy offers a lens to understand and inspire change. Continue reading...

What Is an Import?

An import is a fundamental concept in international trade, shaping the economic landscapes of nations and influencing global markets. In this article, we will delve into the intricacies of imports, explore their implications, and weigh their pros and cons. At its core, an import refers to a product or service that is produced in one country and then purchased and consumed in another. This exchange forms the bedrock of international trade, connecting economies, facilitating resource allocation, and enabling specialization. The opposite of an import is an export, where goods or services produced domestically are sold abroad. Continue reading...

What Is Wash Trading and How Does It Work?

Wash trading is a term that's become increasingly relevant in today's financial markets, especially with the rise of high-frequency trading and the adoption of cryptocurrencies. It's an illegal practice where a trader buys and sells the same security with the intention of creating false market activity, misleading other investors. In this article, we'll delve into what wash trading is, how it works, and provide examples to illustrate this deceptive practice. Continue reading...

What is a commodity swap?

Like a currency or interest rate swap, a commodity swap is a contractual agreement to trade one cash flow for another. Commodity swaps are facilitated by Swap Dealers (SDs) who pair up various companies, mostly in the oil industry, who are looking to trade a floating (market price) cash flow outlay for a fixed one, or vice-versa. Futures Commission Merchants (FCMs) are the agents licensed by the National Futures Association to solicit and broker commodity swaps through Swap Dealers (SDs). (Requirements — found here) Continue reading...

What Is Unemployment?

Unemployment is a term that holds significant importance in the realm of economics, serving as a critical indicator of the health and vitality of an economy. At its core, unemployment pertains to a situation in which an individual is actively seeking employment but is unable to secure a job. This article delves into the multifaceted concept of unemployment, exploring its various causes, classifications, and methods of measurement. Continue reading...

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