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What is the Dividend Discount Model?

The Dividend Discount Model (DDM) is a method for valuing a stock, that looks at expected future dividend payouts and adjusts to present value. If the calculated value is less than the current trading price, the security is thought to be undervalued. The DDM is helpful as a tool but should not solely be used in valuation calculations. Perhaps its biggest flaw is that future dividends have to be projected and assumed, which is a far-from-certain practice. Continue reading...

What is Dividend Growth Rate?

Dividend growth rate is the annual increase in the scale of dividend payments to stockholders. Good dividend growth is a sign of a company with solid earnings. Dividend growth rate is also referred to as dividend appreciation, and it can be computed fairly easily using historical data. Simply put, the dividend rate is the amount of dividend paid in a year divided by the share price when the dividend is paid. Continue reading...

What is Dividend Adjusted Return?

An accurate historical return calculation for an investment should be done with the dividends in mind, such as assuming all dividends were reinvested, which is the most common way they are used. Accurate historical information concerning prices and return should take the stock splits, dividends, and so-on into account. In a lesser-known context, dividend adjustment means a payment of accrued but yet-unpaid dividend amounts to the bearer of convertible preferred stock at the time that he or she converts them to shares of common stock. Continue reading...

What is Abnormal Earnings Valuation?

The abnormal earnings valuation method is one in which the future cash flows of a business are given significant weight in a valuation, especially when there are not many hard assets to use for valuation purposes. If a company is rich in human capital or has significant cash flows, whether or not it has many hard asset or book value, the Abnormal Earnings Valuation Model can be the most useful method for arriving at an accurate valuation of a business and its stock. Continue reading...

What is the gordon growth model?

The Gordon Growth Model is also known as the dividend discount model (DDM). It is a model for pricing a stock that was developed by professor Myron J. Gordon in the 1960s. The model uses a stock’s present value relative to the present value of its future dividends to provide an intrinsic value for the stock. The model is a shaky one at best, especially given that companies these days often change the course of dividend payments, and many (particularly in the tech world) don’t pay any dividends at all. Continue reading...

What is Discounted Cash Flow?

Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) uses an estimated future cash flow amount and a Discount Rate to determine the Present Value (PV). An investor or business executive might project an estimated future cash flow for a business based on recent growth rates, industry information, futurism, estimated inflation, etc. The most common future cash flow to use is free cash flow, which takes out capital expenditures. Continue reading...

What is a Discount Broker?

Discount Broker is a financial organization that places trades at a discount to a full service broker, and also often will serve as a custodian for assets. With the onset of online trading platforms, the discount brokerage industry has seen plenty of growth over the last few years. In many cases, however, a discount broker will not offer any investment advice - hence the discounted price for trading services. An investor that wants a lot of personalized service should probably consider a full service broker over a discount broker, since a discount broker literally only focuses on trade execution and will not provide additional services, like research and advice. Continue reading...

What is the Discount Rate?

The Discount Rate can actually have multiple meanings, but the most prevalent one is in regards to the minimum interest rate the Federal Reserve will charge for lending to commercial banks. The Federal Reserve sets the discount rate in an effort to discourage or encourage commercial banks to borrow, depending on the economic conditions. The discount rate also refers to the rate used to calculate the present value of future cash flows, as part of Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) analysis. Continue reading...

What is Terminal Value?

The "end" value at a specified date in the future of an investment or cash flow. Terminal value is a term used in value calculations looking forward toward the future value of an asset or cash flow, and also in calculations which start with the Terminal Value and depreciate the asset over the intervening years until one arrives at the Present Value. Can be used in calculations regarding a business, an index, a cash flow, or an asset. Horizon Value is a synonym, and is perhaps better suited to describe the way the calculation chooses a time horizon of a specific number of years, but otherwise uses the same numbers in an equation that will estimate the value if the business or index went on growing at the same rate into perpetuity. Continue reading...

What is Time Value of Money?

The Time Value of Money is a theme for discourse and calculations related to the effect of interest on money over time, and the interrelation between Present Value and Future Value. The Time in the equation of Rate of Return x Time x Present Value = Future Value has a value and an effect on the Future Value (or the Present Value depending on what you're solving for). The Time Value of Money is, at it's simplest, something which nearly everyone has seen but hasn't heard called by that name: turn this amount of money into that amount of money by letting it grow in the market for a length of time. Continue reading...

What is the Federal Discount Rate?

The Federal Discount Rate is the interest rate that the Federal Reserve charges banks for borrowing money. This is usually done overnight to satisfy reserve requirements on short notice. It is different than the Federal Funds Rate, which is the rate that banks charge each other. The 12 regional Federal Reserve Banks determine their Federal Discount Rate in board meetings every 14 days. It is the interest that will be charged to member banks to borrow directly from the Fed, which they do at times in order to make sure they have enough capital reserves to satisfy regulations. Continue reading...

What is a Dividend?

A dividend is an income-like payment to an investor who holds stock. Dividends tend to be paid by companies who are well established and are not retaining their earnings for capital projects. There are several kinds of dividends, but the most common is the cash dividend. You are not likely to see dividends paid by companies whose stocks are categorized as Growth stocks. Growing companies are going to be ploughing money back into their company for years. Well-established companies tend to distribute some of their profits as dividends because it allows them to retain loyal shareholders and keep the price of the stock fairly steady. Continue reading...

What is the Equity Risk Premium?

The Equity Risk Premium (aka, Equity Premium) is the expected return of the stock market over the risk-free rate (U.S. Treasuries). This number basically refers to the amount an investor should expect in exchange for accepting the risk inherent in the stock market. The size of the equity risk premium varies depending on the amount of risk of a portfolio, the market, or a specific holding investment, against the risk-free rate. Continue reading...

Utilizing AI Model Portfolios: A Guide to Achieving Long-Term Success

With Investing/ Model Portfolios, you can view the performance of passive portfolios. You can receive timely alerts with each re-allocation. Re-allocations are infrequent. Here are the steps: Step 1. Review Model Portfolios' past performance for free. Step 2. Select any Model Portfolio you might be interested in based on their performance. Step 3. Subscribe and follow one or more Model Portfolio. Continue reading...

What is Dividend Policy?

Different companies have different approaches to dividends: whether to pay them, whether it’s a fixed amount in the budget or dependent on the kind of expenses they incur each year. These and other considerations make up what is known as a company’s dividend policy. Companies may have a different phases in their development that will lead them to adopt different dividend policies along the way. As a young company in the Growth category, the dividend policy will most likely be not to distribute any dividends. Continue reading...

What is a Dividend Reinvestment Plan?

A Dividend Reinvestment Plan, referred to as DRIP, is a plan offered by corporations that allows investors to reinvest their dividends in full or partial shares of additional stock, on the dividend payment date. Accessing a DRIP is typically a good long-term investment play - it allows for the investor to repurchase shares at a discount to the share price, and by accumulating additional shares over time increases equity ownership in the company. Continue reading...

What is an Adjunct Account?

An adjunct account increases the valuation of a liability account. An adjunct account is commonly used when accounting for a bond issue sold at a premium. The par value of the bonds sold is included in one line as a credit to Bonds Payable, and the increased premium in placed in another line as a credit to Premium on Bonds payable. The technical term for the account into which a discounted bond’s discount is placed is a Contra Account. Continue reading...

What is present value?

The price in today's dollars for an asset which will appreciate or depreciate to an amount which may be known at a specific date in the future. One simple example of Present Value is the amount that needs to be invested in order to grow to a specific amount later, if the rate of return and length of time are known. So if someone wanted to have $50,000 to buy a boat in 5 years, and they could get 5% on a guaranteed investment, they would need a lump sum investment of about $39,000 to get them there. Continue reading...

What is an S-Corporation?

S-Corporations, also called S-corps, are a cross between a traditional corporation and an LLC. S-Corporations are companies which, as opposed to C-Corporations, do not pay any federal income tax on their earnings, except in a few exceptional cases. Instead, the earnings (or losses) are passed to the shareholders and will appear on their individual income tax reports. The “S” comes from the subchapter of the Internal Revenue Code where the taxation laws are outlined. S-corps can actually be owned and operated by a sole proprietor after incorporating or starting an LLC in the state of residence and filing IRS form 2253 (link to instructions and form — found here). Continue reading...

What is an "Ex-Dividend"?

Ex-Dividend is a classification on a stock that indicates the dividend payable is to the seller of the stock, not the buyer. If a stock is sold on the ex-date or after, the seller will receive the dividend payment. More articles about Dividends — Found Here Continue reading...