## What is absolute frequency?

In statistics, the number of times that a specific value shows up in a data set is the absolute frequency of that value. The absolute frequency can then be used to find the relative frequency, which is the probability that the specific value is observed in a given number of trials. The relative frequency (empirical probability) takes the absolute frequency and divides it by the total number of trials (cumulative frequency), and can be expressed as a ratio or percentage. Continue reading...

## What is a Settlement Date?

The length of time after a trade is executed that the securities are due delivered and the payment is due paid varies for different types of transactions, but the date on which this occurs is the settlement date. Most exchange-traded corporate securities in the United States are required to be settled three days after the trade order is entered, which is called T+3. That date is the settlement date, and is the final date on which the transaction must be finalized by both parties involved. Continue reading...

## What is Ex-Date?

The Ex-Date is for a stock indicates the last date of the month where a dividend is payable. It is two days before the record date. If an investor buys a stock before the ex-date, they are entitled to the dividend that the stock is scheduled to pay that month. If the investor buys on or after the ex-date, then they will not receive the dividend payment for that month - the seller does. When checking Google Finance or a newspaper for a stock quote, the ex-date is typically marked with a lowercase “x.” Continue reading...

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## What is an 'expiration date' in reference to option trading?

An ‘expiration date’ refers to the time when an option contract must either be acted upon by the owner (buying or selling the security in question) or left to expire. With derivatives such as options and futures, there will be an expiry, or expiration date in the contract, after which they expire worthlessly. Most options contracts will expire in 3, 6 or 9 months from when they are generated, and they all share the same expiration day of the month on their contracts in the United States, which is the 3rd Friday of the month at 4 PM. Continue reading...

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## What are Simple and Exponential Moving Averages?

Moving averages are important components of many&nbsp;technical indicators. A simple moving average determines the average of a range of closing prices for a security or&nbsp;index&nbsp;for a specific period of time. An exponential moving average is a moving average that gives more weight to the most recent data. Simple moving averages are not weighted for time the way that exponential moving averages are, which has the effect of snapping the chart to the most current information, while simple moving averages have lag. Continue reading...

## What is Dividend Capture?

Dividend capture is a strategy similar to dividend arbitrage that seeks to reap incremental gains somewhat reliably around the ex-dividend date of a stock. The investor seeks to benefit from the fact that stock prices don’t always go down as much as they should on the ex-dividend date, so by selling quickly at that point, the investor may still get a small gain from the dividend that will still be paid to him or her. Dividend capture is a strategy that plays on slight inefficiencies in prices around the ex-dividend date. Continue reading...

## What does “Buy to Close” Mean?

When an investor takes a short position on an option contract by selling (“writing”) a call or put option, he or she is opening a position, which creates more open interest in an underlying security which will be handled by the brokerage house, and this is called “selling to open.” If the price changes in the underlying security in an unfavorable way, the investor will seek to get out of the short position he holds on the options contract before the option’s expiration date. To do so, the investor must buy back the option (or, really, cancel out the position by buying the same kind of contract that he or she previously sold short). Continue reading...

## What is an "Ex-Dividend"?

Ex-Dividend is a classification on a stock that indicates the dividend payable is to the seller of the stock, not the buyer. If a stock is sold on the ex-date or after, the seller will receive the dividend payment. More articles about Dividends — Found Here Continue reading...

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## What is Net Income?

Net income is the amount of earnings left over once expenses have been deducted from sales. In short, it is the net amount of profit or loss. It is calculated by taking total earnings in a period (such as a quarter), and deducting all elements of the cost of doing business (labor, depreciation, fixed expenses, overhead, etc…) Net income is ultimately a measure of a company’s profitability, and its calculation should be scrutinized closely to ensure all expenses are being accounted for accurately. Continue reading...

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## What is Net Worth?

Net worth is the total value of a person or entity’s assets, minus all of their outstanding liabilities. Net worth is most often used in personal finance, with the simple calculation of Net Worth = Assets - Liabilities. In the business context, net worth is also known as book value or shareholder’s equity, and those with rising book value mean they are generating more revenue and obtaining property more quickly than they’re accumulating debt. A rising market value does not necessarily correlate to a rising net worth, as the market may bid up a company’s market capitalization absent profit growth. Continue reading...

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## How Does a 401(k) Compare With Other Retirement Plans?

There are several types of retirement plans that employers can provide, but 401(k)s are one of the most popular. Other employer-sponsored retirement plans include SIMPLEs, SEPs, and various kinds of defined benefit plans. SIMPLE IRAs are sometimes called SIMPLE 401(k)s, because they operate under the same laws as Safe Harbor 401(k)s. They both are primarily employee-funded, and have rigid standards for employer contributions. Continue reading...

## What is the Advance/Decline Divergence Oscillator?

The advance/decline divergence oscillator (also called the McClellan Oscillator after its creators) tracks the rate of change in the&nbsp;advance-decline line&nbsp;(net advances). The AD line is formed from the Net Advances/Declines calculated daily at market close; this represents the proportion of stocks which advanced (increased) in price that day versus those which declined – the size of the difference is called the&nbsp;daily breadth. The advance/decline divergence oscillator can be applied to any group of stocks or exchange. Continue reading...

## What is the SEC?

The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is a governmental regulatory agency established by Congress which polices the practices of the securities industry. Since 1934, the SEC's mission has been to protect investors and the market from malfeasance. FINRA (the 2007 successor to the NASD which was formed in 1939) is a self-regulatory organization in the industry which seeks to keep member firms more than compliant with SEC regulations. Continue reading...

## What are the IRS Guidelines for Filing a Form 4868 Tax Return Extension?

IRS Link to Form — Found Here An individual can automatically have their tax return due date extended by 6 months by filing a Form 4868. Tax returns are generally due by April 15, so this gives a person until October 15 to have the 1040 return submitted. This also goes for other tax return forms such as 1040-A and 1040-EZ. Please note that the IRS expects your taxes to be paid by April 18th, using your best-guess at what you owe, in order to avoid additional charges. People often do not have their tax returns completed by April 15, for various reasons. Continue reading...

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## What does net long mean?

Investors are net long when they own more&nbsp;long positions&nbsp;than&nbsp;short positions in a&nbsp;security,&nbsp;derivative, or fund. It could mean that a&nbsp;fund manager, for instance, is net long on all of the&nbsp;holdings in the funds, i.e., the fund holds more long positions than short positions. Some funds could be the opposite and be net short. A long position - or to be “long a&nbsp;stock” - means that an investor has share ownership and will receive economic benefit if the share price rises, and vice versa. Creating and maintaining a&nbsp;long position&nbsp;is simple: an investor buys and owns the investment. Some asset managers will employ a “long-only” strategy, only buying and selling&nbsp;securities&nbsp;in the&nbsp;portfolio&nbsp;as a management strategy - they will not use&nbsp;options&nbsp;or shorting strategies as a result. Continue reading...

## What is Dividend Selling?

If a person buys a stock that pays a dividend on or after the ex-dividend date, where we understand “ex” to mean “after,” it means that the buyer would be buying the shares for the amount that still has a dividend (or some of it) priced-in, but the seller, not the buyer, will get to have the dividend, and the share price will go down immediately after the dividend is paid. Stock prices will tend to go up in anticipation of a dividend, and more so after the declaration date, which might be anywhere from two months to two weeks before the actual dividend is paid, when the company announces when a dividend is to be paid and how much it will be. Continue reading...

## What is Return on Net Assets?

Return on Net Assets is a calculation used to determine how well a company performs, relative to its resources. Return on Net Assets gives investors an idea of how well a company uses its resources to generate profits. Net assets includes not only fixed, tangible assets, but also the net working capital of a business. Working capital is defined as Current Assets minus the Current Liabilities of the business. The net profits for a period are divided by the net assets to arrive at the Return on Net Assets. Continue reading...