## What is Probate?

Probate is the legal process that takes place after a person’s death, during which legal documents (such as wills and trusts) are reviewed and enforced. A person’s will generally must be validated by the court, after which the person’s assets are distributed to the heirs accordingly. If there is no will, then the probate court will decide how to distribute the assets, which may not be consistent with the deceased’s actual wishes. Continue reading...

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## What is standard deviation?

Standard Deviation is a measurement of how far from the average (mean) the majority of a data set lies. Standard Deviation is a measure of variability, and it is on a different scale for each data set being measured; there is no “standard” standard deviation. It is possible to normalize it for comparison to other data sets using measurements like r-squared and the sharpe ratio. The number arrived at when computing standard deviation is going to reveal the distance, in terms of one of the quantifiable variables being observed, from the average, in either a positive or negative direction, within which 68% of the data set falls. Continue reading...

## What is absolute frequency?

In statistics, the number of times that a specific value shows up in a data set is the absolute frequency of that value. The absolute frequency can then be used to find the relative frequency, which is the probability that the specific value is observed in a given number of trials. The relative frequency (empirical probability) takes the absolute frequency and divides it by the total number of trials (cumulative frequency), and can be expressed as a ratio or percentage. Continue reading...

## How is a Will Implemented After my Death?

After a person’s death, their will is typically reviewed by probate court which will enforce the terms of the will and ensure the assets are distributed according to the wishes of the deceased. Any disputes or contest to the distribution of assets will likely be heard by probate court, and can be costly if dragged out over long stretches of time. What is the Difference Between a Will and a Trust? Do I Need a Will? Continue reading...

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## Should I Notarize my Will?

In general, a will must be signed in the presence of two witnesses, each of whom must also sign your will. Whether or not a notarized will is accepted by the court depends on the rules of the state in which you live. You should cross-reference the rules of your state and comply to them, or simply consult an estate planning attorney for the best approach. How is a Will Implemented After my Death? Do I Need Professional Help to Prepare a Will? What is Probate? Continue reading...

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## What is Pari-Passu?

“Pari-passu” is a Latin phrase meaning “equal footing,” typically in reference to treatment of creditors or beneficiaries when assets are distributed. Some examples of pari-passu in practice would be bankruptcy proceedings when credits are given ‘equal access’ to assets of the company, or in a probate hearing when assets are divided equally amongst beneficiaries. Continue reading...

## Do I Need a Will?

Yes, generally speaking any person that has assets and liabilities needs a will. In the absence of a will, a deceased person’s assets will be distributed by a court, which may not handle the assets as the deceased would have desired. Not having a will also subjects a person’s estate to legal disputes from heirs, creditors, and sometimes non-family members seeking to make a claim. The court costs to settling an estate without a will can be very high and taxing to the deceased’s immediate family and loved ones. Continue reading...

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## Do I Need Professional Help to Prepare a Will?

Whether you need professional help depends on the size of your estate and the complexity of your wishes for how to distribute your assets. Generally speaking, however, it makes sense to hire legal help to create your last will and any related trusts, as often times the cost to doing so is less than the cost of probate court and duress to your heirs in settling the estate themselves. What is a Living Will? What is the Difference Between a Will and a Trust? How Much Does it Cost to Prepare a Will? Continue reading...

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## Can I Use Standard Online Wills?

While online will templates may be useful for those with straightforward estate plans, they lack customization and legal guidance. To avoid the risk of creating a contested or unenforceable will, individuals should only use templates from trusted sources and consult an estate planning attorney for complex estate plans, significant assets, or unusual circumstances. Ultimately, a well-crafted will provides peace of mind and security for loved ones, and individuals should take the time to make informed decisions when creating a will. Continue reading...

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## What is Bayes' Theorem and how does it work?

Unlock the power of Bayes' Theorem! 📊 Dive into its history, applications in finance, medicine, and more. Discover how it refines predictions, even in stock markets and drug testing. Make informed decisions with this indispensable tool! #BayesTheorem #ProbabilityAnalysis Continue reading...

## What does hypothesis testing mean?

A theory about what will happen and why is a hypothesis, and to prove the hypothesis has some relevancy it will have to be compared to the probability of getting those results by pure chance. A hypothesis is a testable prediction of results that should be observed due to the effects of an independent variable. Such predictions must be tested against the probability of the resulting observations happening due to complete chance instead of the influence of the independent variable. Continue reading...

## How Do You Understand and Calculate the P-Value in Statistics?

Ever wondered about the magic behind the p-value in statistics? Dive into our comprehensive guide to unravel its significance, calculation methods, and pivotal role in hypothesis testing. Step into the world of data, decoded Continue reading...

## What does the term "Monte Carlo Simulation" refer to?

The Monte Carlo simulation method, named after the famed Monaco casino, is a powerful tool to model the probability of diverse outcomes in uncertain processes. This technique, involving random variables, is pivotal in understanding and managing risk and uncertainty across various sectors. Continue reading...

## How Effective Is the Kelly Criterion for Asset Allocation and Money Management?

In the realm of financial strategies, the Kelly Criterion stands as a method hailed for its potential to allocate capital efficiently while balancing risk. Developed by John Kelly, an AT&amp;T Bell Labs researcher, the formula originally aimed to address issues related to long-distance telephone signal noise. However, its versatility has found applications beyond its initial scope, particularly in investment and gambling management. The principle of the Kelly Criterion revolves around a mathematical formula that aids investors and gamblers in determining the optimal percentage of their capital to allocate to each trade or bet. Continue reading...

## What is a Monte Carlo Simulation?

Monte Carlo Simulations can help investors project future values and the impact to portfolios from market movements and cash flows. A Monte Carlo Simulation outlines the many possible outcomes of a situation with random variables, as well as the probability that any particular outcome will occur. It is used in a wide variety of professional fields from finance to engineering and even astrology. The technique has many applications in finance and is commonly used to help predict the future value of an asset when there are multiple variables involved. Continue reading...

## Is there any merit to some other portfolio theories?

Plenty of theories are known because they are useful, and it is up to you to discern which ones may be worth your time and fit your situation and investment or analysis style. There’s always merit to any theory which has been put through rigorous statistical tests. However, keep in mind that as with any other statistical inferences, an event with probability zero sometimes happens (Black Swans), and an event with probability one sometimes doesn’t. Continue reading...

## What is Normal Distribution? Understanding Its Formula and Real-world Examples

The normal distribution is a cornerstone concept in statistics and probability, deeply entrenched in the financial analysis. It's the bedrock upon which risk assessment, performance metrics, and predictive models are built. Imagine a continuous curve that echoes the probabilities of a range of outcomes—it's the bell-shaped figure that first comes to mind, exemplifying the Normal Distribution. Continue reading...

## What Is a Bell Curve?

A bell curve, often referred to as a normal distribution, is a fundamental concept in statistics that plays a crucial role in various fields, including finance. This graphical representation of data is characterized by its symmetrical, bell-shaped curve. In this article, we'll delve into what a bell curve is, how it's used in finance, and its limitations. Continue reading...

## Where can I get information about private placements?

The short answer is, you can’t. Private placements have no reporting or registration requirements with the SEC or other entities. Sometimes this can be good for investors who enjoy the discretion. But it can also be a shield for unethical business people who prefer to avoid regulatory oversight. There is no source for detailed information about private placements unless you personally know a general partner who can describe to you his project, or who comes highly recommended with a lot of references. If an offering seeks to raise over \$2 million in the capital in a year’s time, they are obligated under Regulation D to provide audited financial statements to the investors. Continue reading...

## What is the Hindenburg omen and is there any merit to it?

The Hindenburg Omen is technical indicator meant to predict bear markets, sell-offs, and declines. It is named after the famous tragedy of the Hindenburg Zeppelin in Germany on May 6th, 1937. The “Omen” identifies several very complex technical patterns in the behavior of the NYSE, such as the number of new highs, new lows, and some other indicators. It claims to predict market crashes within a very short period of time (about 40 days). Continue reading...