## What is absolute frequency?

In statistics, the number of times that a specific value shows up in a data set is the absolute frequency of that value. The absolute frequency can then be used to find the relative frequency, which is the probability that the specific value is observed in a given number of trials. The relative frequency (empirical probability) takes the absolute frequency and divides it by the total number of trials (cumulative frequency), and can be expressed as a ratio or percentage. Continue reading...

## What does hypothesis testing mean?

A theory about what will happen and why is a hypothesis, and to prove the hypothesis has some relevancy it will have to be compared to the probability of getting those results by pure chance. A hypothesis is a testable prediction of results that should be observed due to the effects of an independent variable. Such predictions must be tested against the probability of the resulting observations happening due to complete chance instead of the influence of the independent variable. Continue reading...

## What is an 'expiration date' in reference to option trading?

An ‘expiration date’ refers to the time when an option contract must either be acted upon by the owner (buying or selling the security in question) or left to expire. With derivatives such as options and futures, there will be an expiry, or expiration date in the contract, after which they expire worthlessly. Most options contracts will expire in 3, 6 or 9 months from when they are generated, and they all share the same expiration day of the month on their contracts in the United States, which is the 3rd Friday of the month at 4 PM. Continue reading...

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## What is triple witching?

Triple witching hour is when three types of derivatives expire at once, which happens once every quarter in the US. It typically results in irregular or volatile movements in the markets. When stock market index futures, stock market index options and stock options all expire at the same time, the hour before close is called the Triple Witching Hour. This occurs on the third Friday of March, June, September, and December in the United States between 3:00 PM and 4:00 PM Eastern time. Continue reading...

Options are contracts used by investors to take a speculative position – or a hedge – based on expected future price movements of the underlying securities. An option is a contract which can be exercised if the price of an underlying security moves favorably. An option will be written or sold short by one investor and bought by another. It will name the strike price at which the security can be bought or sold before the expiration of the contract. Continue reading...

## What does “Buy to Close” Mean?

When an investor takes a short position on an option contract by selling (“writing”) a call or put option, he or she is opening a position, which creates more open interest in an underlying security which will be handled by the brokerage house, and this is called “selling to open.” If the price changes in the underlying security in an unfavorable way, the investor will seek to get out of the short position he holds on the options contract before the option’s expiration date. To do so, the investor must buy back the option (or, really, cancel out the position by buying the same kind of contract that he or she previously sold short). Continue reading...

## What is the Empirical Rule?

Unlock the power of the Empirical Rule! 📊 Dive into this statistical gem and discover how it predicts outcomes, assesses data, and manages risk across industries. Make informed decisions with the 68-95-99.7 rule! #Statistics #DataAnalysis Continue reading...

## What is the October Effect?

The October Effect, also known as the Mark Twain Effect, is an anecdotally-founded fear that markets are vulnerable to catastrophe in the month of October. Several Octobers have appeared to be the origin of problems in the market: in 1929 at the onset of the Great Depression, the 1987 crash, and in 2008 at the start of the Great Recession. Perhaps superstitiously, many people expect October to be the worse month of the year for the market, supposing that if something bad were going to happen, it would happen in October. Statistically, there isn't much support for this idea. Continue reading...

## How can one study customer behavior for marketing purposes?

🔍 Unlock marketing success by diving deep into customer behavior! 🧠 Grasp why loyal customers are pure gold 🏆, how customer service can make or break loyalty 💔, and the pivotal roles of both external &amp; internal customers. Decipher the core essence of your audience for a thriving business future. 🚀 #CustomerFirst Continue reading...

## Is there such a thing as the “January effect?”

The January Effect is a hypothesis which states that stocks will see their biggest monthly gains in January. The January Effect states that the stock market usually increases during the first few days in January, or that the largest monthly gains of the year will be realized in January, therefore January will set the pace. There are many explanations for this effect, such as tax-loss selling in December, fresh starts after the New Year, and many others. Continue reading...

## What is Life Insurance?

Life insurance is one of the oldest financial products in existence, with roots going back beyond the ancient Roman Empire. Today, there are many different kinds of life insurance available, most representing variations on the main categories of term life, whole life, and universal life. It can be written in a private contract, but most often it is offered as packaged products to the public. Life Insurance’s main purpose is to ensure that dependents of a deceased provider or caretaker will have some financial resources to fall back on, but it can also be used as a means to create a guaranteed legacy or a tax-advantaged pool of money. Continue reading...

## Is there such a thing as the “pre-holiday effect?”

Pre-Holiday price fluctuations have been observed in many instances, but there a difference of opinion as to whether the markets are higher or lower just before holiday. Pre-Holiday Seasonality is the idea that prices will rise or fall before a holiday weekend in which the market will be closed for a day. When researching this phenomenon you may find colloquial wisdom stating that prices always rise before a holiday, but in actuality most of the evidence points the opposite direction: prices are most likely to close lower the day or two before a holiday weekend, and may remain low the day after the holiday, but this provides a possible opportunity to ride the upswing. Continue reading...

## What is fourier analysis?

Fourier Analysis is a mathematical method of identifying and describing harmonic patterns in complex oscillating environments, and is used in options pricing among other things. Fourier Analysis is used to compute the probability that results will be within a certain range. Fourier analysis also has many other applications in physics, engineering, and music, for instance, because it can create a system for identifying patterns and simplifying computations for complex systems which feature oscillations and waves which have frequencies. Continue reading...

## What Is Microeconomics?

Microeconomics, often referred to as the study of the "small picture" in economics, is a branch of the discipline that delves into the nitty-gritty of individual and firm behavior in the market. This field is instrumental in deciphering the intricate web of choices, decisions, and incentives that guide our resource allocation, production, exchange, and consumption. At its core, microeconomics seeks to illuminate the consequences of decisions made by individuals and firms in response to changes in various factors, including incentives, prices, resources, and production methods. Continue reading...

## What are Fibonacci Numbers/Lines?

Fibonacci numbers are part of the&nbsp;Fibonacci sequence, where the two previous numbers are added together to calculate the next number in the sequence. The ratio of two Fibonacci numbers is the Golden Ratio, or 1.61803398875, which has been used since ancient times as the perfect proportion in architecture and other design. The Golden Ratio is also known as Phi (pronounced “fee”). Because Fibonacci numbers are found throughout the natural world, they have been integrated into some traders’ strategies for market analysis. Continue reading...

Embark on a journey through the dynamic world of trading and unearth the best strategies to navigate the options market. Whether you're a novice trader or a seasoned investor, this comprehensive guide unveils the essentials of trading, the steps to kickstart your trading venture, and the tailored strategies to thrive in the ever-fluctuating market conditions. Discover how the right trading strategies can unlock potential profits, even in volatile markets. Continue reading...

## What is BRICS and Why Does It Matter in the Global Economy?

Dive deep into the world of BRICS, the powerful coalition of emerging economies that's reshaping the global landscape. Coined by Goldman Sachs in 2001, BRICS represents Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa, nations poised to redefine global economic dominance. From its inception as an analytical concept to its current role as a formidable economic alliance, BRICS stands as a testament to the shifting dynamics of global power. Discover the history, ambitions, and challenges of this influential group, and understand why it's a force to be reckoned with in the 21st century. Continue reading...

## How to Trade Moving Averages: The Death Cross?

The Death Cross is the inverse of a Golden Cross: a chart pattern occurring when a security’s short-term moving average crosses underneath its long-term counterpart, typically followed by an increase in trading volume. A death cross, which like a golden cross most commonly uses long-term 50-day and 200-day moving averages to detect the pattern, usually signifies an incoming bear market to traders. Continue reading...

## Should I Trust the Opinions Expressed by Various Financial Analysts?

Studies suggest that it is not wise to put too much faith in any market analyst or commentator – but it may be wise to listen to as many of them as possible. There have been many studies surrounding the predictions of financial analysts who seek to foretell the direction of the economy, particular sectors, or even individual stocks. The studies reveal that it isn’t wise to rely on the forecasts of any one commentator or analyst. Continue reading...

## What Is a Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA)?

A chartered financial analyst (CFA) is a prestigious professional designation awarded by the CFA Institute, formerly known as the AIMR (Association for Investment Management and Research). This designation serves as a testament to the expertise and integrity of financial analysts. The rigorous CFA program is designed to ensure that individuals who earn the charter possess comprehensive knowledge and skills in various areas of finance, including accounting, economics, ethics, money management, and security analysis. Continue reading...